Instructional materials are materials used to impact knowledge into the mind of learners, this material can either be visual or audio-visual. Improvised instructional materials are those teaching and learning materials produced using locally available resources with the help of experts. The paper visualized the importance of improvised instructional material for the teaching of biology at all levels of education, highlighted some of the improviseable alternatives to standard equipment, pointed out the role of students, school authority and government in this important educational innovation so as to achieve the stated educational goals.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
Administration of questionnaire
Method of data collection
Reliability and validity of instrument
Method of data analysis
Presentation and analysis of data
Responses made by school heads
Responses made by teachers
Summary of finding
- Background of the study
The universal basic education (UBE) programme of Nigeria is designed among other things to facilitate the standard of literacy and improve societal development, the UBE is a nine year programame that cover six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary schools. The three years of junior secondary school is known as upper basic (Basic 7-9). This upper basic level is aimed at preparing the youths for gainful employment or progression into the senior secondary level and subsequent admission into higher education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Undoubtedly, these functions are very essential to the survival, enhancement and development of the Nigeria society. However, the extent to which the upper basic education level achieves the set aims is largely dependent on the various subjects in the curriculum and how they are taught in schools. Biology is one of the vocational subject taught at the upper level of the Nigerian education system as a compulsory part of the curriculum. It is taught as an integral core subject which comprises nature of molecules, cells, photosynthesis, respiration, reproduction etc. Biology is an interdisciplinary field of study which helps families and individuals to understand and adapt to the effects of biological changes. Archurst and Anyakoha (2004) described it as one of the natural sciences which also includes chemistry, physics and health science. The social sciences i.e. sociology, political science, economics, philosophy, psychology and art in solving problems of families and individuals.
- Statement of problem
Evidence from the studies reviewed shows that failure rate in biology at senior certificate examinations is high. This could be attributed to a number of factors; one of such factors is lack or total absence of instructional materials. In teaching and learning, instructional materials play a key role towards concretizing learning. Instructional materials make learning meaningful and help to improve students’ academic achievement. However these advantages of instructional materials have not reflected in the education system because of the dearth of these instructional materials in our schools. Hence, the need for alternative instructional materials called improvisation. Biology is resource intensive and in an era of poor funding or scarcity of resources, it may be very difficult to find some of the original materials and equipment for the teaching of biology in schools adequately, improvisation becomes the next option. Studies have shown the importance of improvisation in teaching of biology. All these studies used conventional instructional materials but there have not been studies specifically on the effect of students improvised instructional materials on students achievement in biology. This study therefore is geared towards finding out if the use of students improvised instructional materials could bring a solution to the problem of poor achievement of students in biology.
1.3 Objective of the study
The main objective of the study is the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning biology in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. However, for the successful completion of the study, the following sub objectives were put forward by the researcher:
(i) To examine the effect of students improvised instructional materials and conventional materials on students scores in biology.
(ii) To identify the influence of gender on scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials.
(iii) To explore the influence of school location on students scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials.
(iv) To investigate the interactive effects of material and gender on students scores in biology.
- Research question
For the successful completion of the study, the following research questions were formulated:
(i) How can the effect of students improvised instructional materials and conventional materials on students scores in biology be examined?
(ii) What is the influence of gender on students scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials?
(iii) What is the influence of school location on students scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials?
(iv) What is the interaction effect of material and genders on students scores in biology?
- Significance of the study
First and foremost, the findings of the study will be of much significance to students, researchers and teachers in secondary schools. This is so because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to this group of learners where conducting a research on the impact of instructional materials on teaching.
Again the study has much significance on the government in Nigeria. This is so because, it will serve as a source of information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials to teaching provides has is for the falling standard of learning in the country.
Furthermore, the study will be significant to parents, this is so because when conducting parents teachers meeting such an issue might be raised and this will serve as a good reference document in providing solution.
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study is the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning biology in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. However, the study has some constrained and limitations which are:
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
- Definition of terms
A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or pupils) under the direction of teachers.
A school environment is a school that has appropriate facilities, well-managed classrooms available school based health supports and a clear, fair disciplinary policy. It also includes the physical and aesthetic surroundings and the safety, security, climate and culture of the school.
Academic achievement refers to a student’s success in meeting short or long term goals in education.
The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
Instructional materials refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities.
Teaching is the art and science of helping others to grow in their knowledge and understanding.
It is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin and distribution.
A secondary school is one means of delivering education to adolescents in level 2 or junior secondary education which is considered the second and final phase of basic education.