The use of microcontroller is in every field even we can use it in the design and fabrication of biomedical equipments. A little example is here. The microcontroller at89s51 (8051) is here used to develop a heart beat monitoring system. By placing your finger in between a LED and photo resistance, we can detect the pulses of heart, the analog voltages are further processed with an operational amplifier LM 358, this chip has two built in OPAMPs. The TTL pulses or digital pulse are then feed to the external interrupt of microcontroller 8051. By using a software counter in the code, we can count the pulses, and the result the process is displayed on an LCD (2 line 16 characters). The schematic circuit diagram of heart beat monitor is shown below and the code ( c program) in c language using keil C51 uv3 is also shown. This is only test project and any one can copy from it.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Scope of the Project
1.6 Project Report Organization
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Microcontroller Systems.
2.1.1 Benefits of Microcontroller Systems
2.1.2 Comparison between Microcontrollers and other design
2.2 Frequency Systems
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN..
- The Input Interface Design..
3.3 Microcontroller system
3.4.1 System Reset
3.4.2 System Clock..
3.4.4 Other Features of the Microcontroller
3.5 Control Program Design.
3.7 Output Interface Design.
3.7.1 Introduction to LCD
3.7.2 Pin Description
3.8 Power Unit.
3.8.1 Timer Power Source
3.9 System Block Diagram
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
- Choice of Programming Language
4.1 Hardware Implementation..
220.127.116.11Input Interface Implementation..
4.1.2 Control System Implementation..
4.1.3 Output Interface Implementation..
- Software Implementation
4.2.1 Complete System Implementation
4.2.2 Complete System Wiring Diagram
CHAPTER FIVE: SYSTEM TESTING AND
5.1 The Test Plan
- Test Data, Expected Result versus Actual Test Result.
5.2.1 The Power Supply Unit Testing
5.2.2 Input Interface Testing..
5.2.3 Control Software Testing
5.2.4 Output Interface Testing
5.2.5 Complete System Testing
5.3 Performance Evaluation
5.4 System Packaging.
CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
6.1 Summary of Achievements
6.2 Problems Encountered and Solutions
6.3 Suggestions for Further Improvements
APPENDIX A: System Components List
APPENDIX B: Components Cost Analysis
APPENDIX C: Circuit Components Layout
APPENDIX D: Circuit Wiring Schedule
APPENDIX E: Complete System Circuit
APPENDIX F System Flowchart
APPENDIX G System Source Code Listing
APPENDIX H System User’s Guide
APPENDIX I: Project Package Photograph
APPENDIX J: Microcontroller Instruction Set
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 3.1 Input Interface
Fig. 3.6 the Microcontroller system..
Fig. 3.7 System Reset Circuit..
Fig. 3.8 Crystal connection to the microcontroller..
Fig. 3.1.2 Top down flow chart of Remote Control.
Fig.3. character LCD type hd44780 pin diagram
Fig.3.2.0 Complete Power supply..
Fig.3.2.1 Output wave form of the complete power
Fig.3.2.2 Wave form of the transformer output..
Fig.3.2.3a Output of full wave rectified Dc..
Fig.3.2.3b Bridge rectifier..
Fig3.2.4 Waveform of Rectified..
Fig. 3.2.5 Voltage Regulator and output wave form of
Fig. 3.2.6 Block Diagram of System..
Fig 4.1 Complete Circuit Diagram
LIST OF TABLES
Table 5.1 project costing..
One of the most difficult tasks in generating signals is the decoding. It is only when signals are decoded that it can be used for any essential purpose. Frequency happens to be one of such signals that require a careful decoding technique. One important source of signal is the human body, where different types of signals are generated. Biomedical signal such as the heart beat is very essential to the medical expert to be able to ascertain the kind of medical issue with a patient.
This project, Microcontroller based heart beat monitor is a project that is geared toward the development of simple tool to assist the medical experts to check the human heart rate before further diagnosis can be recommended.
The main objective of this project is to design and Implement Microcontroller based heart beat monitor. It is also intended to use this means to contribute to the academic research work.
If this prototype is fully developed will be very useful in many areas such as:
- Laboratory experiments for measuring frequency.
- Apply functions to signals being generated.
- Applicable in the hospitals
- Educational purpose especially in reversed engineering.
- Scope of the Project
This project makes use of a keypad as the only major input channel. AT89C51 Microcontroller is the main control device. Multi-channel Frequency generators circuits will be realized. Simple interface of output/decoded frequency via LCD will also be built. Programming power of Bascom Basic compiler will be exploited.
One the major constraint of this work was finance. Another like it was in availability of the required information.
1.6 Project Report Organization
This report is organized into six chapters. The first chapter takes care of introduction. Chapter two surveys the literature review of this work. In chapter three, the project analysis was done. The input, processing and output modules are critically analyzed.
In chapter four, system implementation was carefully done. Chapter five takes care of Testing and Implementation. Finally chapter six closes up with summary and conclusions.