The primary objective of this study is to examine how radio plays a role in rural and agricultural development with specific reference to Otukpo local government area of Benue state. In carrying out this study, the method in which the researcher used to collect her data was questioner. The target population for the study was media practitioners, development experts, farmers, academicians and the rural dwellers in Otukpo Local Government. A sample size of 300 was drawn. The researcher asked research questions and formulated research hypotheses from the research questions for the study, Data were collected, analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Also chi-square (X2) was used to test data generated from the hypotheses. Table and sample percentage were also used to analyze the result. The result of the study revealed the following: The radio facilitates and enhanced agricultural development in Nigeria. That radio air development information to rural areas in Benue state. Also, most of the research hypotheses were confirmed positively. Finally the researcher drew conclusion and recommendation for further studies on the topic
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
Development has been defined as a process of change which is aimed at achieving self-reliance and improve the living condition of under privilege majority of the population. The above definition was according to Linden (1989: 36) “Communication in assistance for Third World communities”.
The role of media in all aspect of development in any given society cannot be over emphasized. Radio is the instruments of mass education. They combine their audio-visual impact to maintain an edge over other forms of mass media. Radio can be used in a number of ways to educate, inform, entertain, sensitize as well as generally socialize in the development of agricultural in rural Areas. As a result of these factors stated above, one can say that for effective agricultural and rural development, the role of Radio in achieving them cannot be over stressed. However, this research work is indeed to examine the role which Radio play in the agricultural and rural development.
Agricultural is the central occupation for majority of the people in Nigeria.
The prime target of this study is as a result of the information and communication on gap that exist in the country between the farmers who ought to benefit from the improved farming method. Conversely, political programme for the states and local governments business promotion or commercially sponsored programmes that can touch the lives of people or farmers that are living in the rural communities. It abundant political and economic orientated programmes are playing their expected roles for the target audience, then sufficient and adequate agricultural programmes will no doubt play their expected roles for the farmers.
However, in the aspect of rural development, the need for Radio in particular and other forms of mass media in general in ensuring rural development is as vital as and other role played by the media in the development and advancement of a nation. Because Radio is a powerful instrument of development in all ramification. As a result of this, its use in the overall development of rural or urban areas must be given special attention, to development experts. This is because its power to communicate makes it one of the most efficient means of reading rural dwellers in the society. As Baran (2002) states, “Communication is the transmission of a message from a source to a receiver”. This means that, if appropriate channel or device is not used to communicate to rural areas on development related matters they will find it difficult to adopt the necessary development programme prospects and ideas which will encourage them to develop. Through appropriate use of Radio to transfer message need of this rural Areas, it becomes very imperative desired goals and objectives of dealing so effective use Radio of will definitely guarantee effective means of paying attention to the development needs of those residing in the rural areas.
Gerbner cited in Griffin (2001) asserts that that Radio power comes from symbolic content of the real life drama show hour after hour, week after week. At its root, Radio is “story” and a society’s stories give corent stories picture of what exist, what is important, what is related to what and what is right. Also to battress Gerbners point as stated by Griffin (earlier cited). McQuail and Windatil (2001) write that, “The medium image held by the receiver causes expectation of the medium content and may thus be assumed to have an influenced on the receivers choice of content as well as on his way of experiencing it and responding to it. According to Padre et al. (2003), agriculture is becoming information sensitive; hence, access to information has become a prerequisite and a valuable resource for agricultural development. In this context, information is required to exploit opportunities, raise awareness about modern farming innovations and technologies, and the impacts of the current choices. FAO (2006) posits that achieving sustainable agriculture development relies not only on material inputs and people involved in their use, but also increased transmission of knowledge and information at every stage of agricultural production chain. Ani (2001) indicates that agricultural extension service delivery has been conceived with communicating research findings 2 and improved agricultural practices, and the efficiency with which this information and practices are conveyed would determine the level of productivity. However, there are poor linkages between the farmer and the institutions concerned with the dissemination of agricultural information on better practices. According to Chapman et al. (2003), radio is widely regarded as a tool for extension services which links the farmer and the sources of agricultural information due to the fact that for more than 80 years after the world’s first radio station was founded, radio is still the most pervasive, accessible, affordable and a flexible medium available in the developing world that can interpret the world from the local perspectives and talk in a local language.
This means that proper use of Radio in the development of agricultural in the rural areas broadcasting and its content in rural development will increase the chances of the rural dwellers ability to respond to such development information carried on the Radio for their own good. It could be said that the joy FM is a mass medium used to transmit development communication to rural areas in Benue state. As a result of this feat, it would be generally influenced by its effectiveness to influence the rural dwellers or otherwise.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The joy FM Benue is a station owned by distinguishes Senator David Bonaventure Mark. This broadcast station turn out programmes in block and band (Frequency modulated (FM) and Short waves band) across the weeks and days respectively. But has little of their time allocated to agricultural programmes for the interest of the farming population. Also the Nigeria small holder farmer urgently needs to improve his output and input of agricultural products for overall benefits of the society and also to meet up with the demands of the contemporary society but this is still dream to be realized. Records of Benue State Agricultural Development project (ASADEP) profile (2007) shows that agricultural development in most developing countries like Nigeria and Benuein particular depicts a slow pace of progress. Many factors are still constraining the achievement of mechanized farming. Other factors militate against effective commercialization and overall development of agriculture in Nigeria but lack of information and awareness on modern techniques and innovation by the farmer is a major, if not the most important problem of the agriculture in our society. Meanwhile, in Nigeria today, not many rural household have Radio to listen to different types of programme aired on radio which are meant to promote development in such rural areas. Also incessant power failure and high cost of buying and maintenance of a radio set maybe a problem of using radio for different purposes by rural areas. Also poor funding of development project and programmes by the government, information through the media and centralization of the media are among the problems that necessitate this type of study. Infact, Radio by their qualitative characteristics introduces fundamental changes to the society and make possible the increase involvement and participation of people across the boundaries of class, age group and nation. Therefore the pre-models basic role of radio which is to inform, educate and entertain can be applied to the field of agricultural and rural development to put on course for development.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the role of radio in the development of agriculture in the rural area; but to aid the completion of the, the researcher intend to achieve the following specific objective;
- To determine whether radio addresses the needs of the farming community in Benue state
- To examine the competence of the resource persons used in radio programming and sensitizing farmers on appropriate methods of farming
- To determine the appropriateness of time and frequency of the program
- To investigate the usefulness of the program to farmers.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
H0: radio program does not address the needs of the farming community in Benue state
H1: radio program does t address the needs of the farming community in Benue state
H0: resource persons used in radio programming in sensitizing farmers on appropriate methods of farming is not competent
H2: resource persons used in radio programming in sensitizing farmers on appropriate methods of farming is competent
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of radio stations in slating qualified personnel to anchor agricultural sensitization program considering the importance of agriculture to the growth and development of Benue state and Nigeria at large; the study will also be of importance to ministry of agriculture as the study seek to explore the merit of collaboration between the government and broadcast station in educating farmers on the way forward on the development of agriculture in the state; the study will also be beneficial to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further research, finally the study will be of great importance to the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and also add to knowledge.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the role of radio in the development of agriculture in the rural area; but in the cause of the study there were some factors the limited the scope of the study;
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
- OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture development means providing assistance to the crop producers with the help of various agricultural resources. Providing protection, assisting in the research sphere, employing latest techniques, controlling pests and facilitating diversity all fall within the purview of agriculture development.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is presented in five (5) chapters in accordance with the standard presentation of research work.
Chapter one contains the introduction which include; background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and overview of the study. Chapter two deals with review of related literature. Chapter three dwelt on research methodology which include; brief description of the study area, research design, sources of data, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, instrument of data collection, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data presentation and analysis. Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis while chapter five is the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.