TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is on the impact of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students. The total population for the study is 200 undergraduate students of Delta state university. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made final year students, year four students year three students and year two students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
In the past two decades, there has been increasing global concern over the continuously expanded rates of unemployment around the world, particularly in most developing countries, where the youth have been identified as the most affected groups. As a result, various governmental and non-governmental organizations have initiated policies through support agencies such as National Directorate for Employment (NDE), the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), Small Medium Enterprises Development Agency (SMEDAN), National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP), Raw Materials & Development Council (RMRDC) among others to address the problems of unemployment among Nigerian citizens (Olayinka 2010, Emannuel, 2012, Akhuemonkhan et al., 2013). These aforementioned strategies were initiated with the hope that the development of self-employment and small enterprise initiatives would serve as a measure to unlock the economic potentials of the people, increase the capacity to empower and equip individuals in society to participate and benefit from their national economy as well as facilitates economic development which forms the bases for transformation (Unachukwu, 2009, Ekpo and Edet, 2011). More recently, the Federal government of Nigeria established another means to inculcate self-employment (entrepreneurship) culture in students of tertiary institutions. This mandate was given to the National Universities Commission (NUC, 2004) to include entrepreneurial studies in the curriculum of Nigerian Universities with the hope of reducing unemployment among fresh graduates (Aja-Okorie and Adali, 2013). However, despite the recognition of entrepreneurship as having the potential to curb unemployment among Nigerian youth and the introduction of entrepreneurship education in Nigerian universities, about 80% of the Nigerian youth are unemployed and about 10% are under employed with 7 out of 10 graduates remaining unemployed or underemployed (Dike, 2009). As the former minister of labour and productivity Adelokunbo Kayode has asserted, “the greatest challenge confronting government today remains massive unemployment which has served as a breeding ground for anti-social vices” in Nigeria (Olayinka, 2010). Essentially, while bulk of existing literature have focused on the positive effects of the adoption entrepreneurship courses in the curricular of most Nigerian universities, little research have been conducted to assess its impact on Nigerian students particularly as regards whether a relationship exists between students taking courses in entrepreneurial development study (EDS) and their intentions of becoming entrepreneurs. Thus, the question remains “how many students would really want to be entrepreneurs or self-employed as a graduate”? This paper therefore seeks to reduce the gap in existing knowledge by conducting an empirical testing and making theoretical contribution drawn from the functionalist theory to provide understanding on the impact of entrepreneurship education particularly as it affects the opinion and intention of undergraduates in becoming self-employed. In this context, the functionalist theory provides understanding of the functional importance of education as a means of solving social problem (unemployment) in order to regulate and create new social order (job creation). Considering Herbert Spencer’s concept of function as originated from the functionalist school of thought (Perrin 1976), society function the way it does based on interdependent relationships that exist among the various social institutions that make up society. Thus, the society is likened to human body whereby each part functions for the continuous regulation of the whole body. Spencer tends to draw comparison between the society and the human body, arguing that any attempt to understand any part of the body organ must be done relating to the other part of the body because they all function to contribute towards the maintenance of the whole system. In the same vein, the various social institutions exist and persist based on the essential functions they perform in the society. In other words, to understand a component of society, one must ask ‘what is the function the various institutions such as educational institution in society perform?’ A complete answer could be quite complex and require a detailed analysis of the history of education, but one obvious answer is that education prepares individuals to enter the work force and therefore maintains a functioning economy. In relation to the above, entrepreneurship education is seen as a distinct social institution that seeks the establishment and maintenance of a functioning economy through job creation with a wide range of interest put into consideration especially as regards unemployment reduction. For instance, Adiele (2010) defined entrepreneurship education as that form of education which inculcate into the individual learner concept, skills and knowledge on how to start a new business or create jobs. Entrepreneurship education is therefore regarded as a vital tool for the reduction of unemployment. In conjunction to the above, this study presents analysis that could assist stakeholders in the areas of education to develop more effective programme activities or strategies that could encourage the participation of Nigerian youth towards career in entrepreneurship.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite the importance of entrepreneurship to economic development, the role of students in promoting entrepreneurship remains largely unstudied. Thus a better understanding of the factors that affect students’ and their entrepreneurial intentions could have theoretical and practical implications to policy makers (both the government and university). Lack of empirical evidence on entrepreneurial tendencies and intentions in Nigeria largely informed us in undertaking this unique study. The rising unemployment level is one of the most challenging problems faced by our leaders today, hence the youths are littered everywhere not having jobs to do.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- Determine the impact of personal attitude and EIs among undergraduate students
- Ascertain the relationship between Social Norm and EI among undergraduate students
- Access the relationship between Perceive Behavioural Control and EI among undergraduate students
- Determine the impact of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate students
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no impact of personal attitude and EIs among undergraduate students.
H1: there is impact of personal attitude and EIs among undergraduate students.
H02: there is no relationship between Perceive Behavioural Control and EI among undergraduate students
H2: there is relationship between Perceive Behavioural Control and EI among undergraduate students
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study, which is primarily aimed at explaining the impact of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate students, will provide an insight into the problems associated with entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate students. This report would be of great benefit for undergraduate students, to expose them to quality entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial intentions. The findings will be useful for researchers to further generate knowledge in the field
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the impact of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate students. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION: Entrepreneurship education seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings. Variations of entrepreneurship education are offered at all levels of schooling from primary or secondary schools through graduate university programs
INTENTION: Intention is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future. Intention involves mental activities such as planning and forethought.
UNDERGRADUATE: An undergraduate degree (also called first degree, bachelor’s degree or simply degree) is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses. It is usually offered at an institution of higher education, such as a university.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study