This research work was directed at the phenomenal of distress facing or affect the graduate in Akwa Ibom. The need for this study is to bring about a drastic reduction of unemployment in the country. Some of the objectives of this research is to find out why a large number of graduate are found unemployed in Akwa Ibom, some of the causes of unemployment in Akwa Ibom and recommendations of suggestions of possible solutions to these problems. Some of the hypothesis used for the study are as follows: poor government policy/policies have increased unemployment in Uyo, high level of unemployment hinders economics development. Concerning methodology, the researcher used the unemployed graduate and school leaver’s questionnaires which was administered by the respondents, the questionnaires were completed on the sport and collected by the researcher, tallied and of simple percentage categories which was used to analyze the result of the respondents.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
Current World Population include an estimated 1.2 billion young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years, which is about 24.7% of the world’s working age population. Worldwide youth unemployment is high, almost three times higher than the adult unemployment rate. With the economic downturn, the worldwide youth unemployment is expected to reach 25% in 2012 (International Labour Organisation, 2008).
In certain parts of the world, especially Sub-Saharan, African, youth unemployment rates can be as high as 60%. More than one third of the young people in the world are unemployed, have completely given up looking for a job or are working but still living below the $2 a day poverty line (International Labour Organisation), or have migrated. Young job seekers face increasing difficulties finding work in the current economic scenario and these have resulted in several social phenomena in the society.
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world with a population of 154, 729,000 citizens. Our nominal GDP is $207.166 billion and we have a nominal per capita income of $140,011. Nigeria also has the second largest economy in Africa, if I may ask, is this country not blessed? Yet, it is still plagued by youth unemployment which had been one of our major problems in recent years. Both government and the private sector had discussed this issue at forums and conferences but have not found a solution to it. Its continued existence has been linked to lack of power supply and financial empowerment for youths.
Youth unemployment in Nigeria is mostly referred to as graduate unemployment and this means that only the skilled youths are seen as unemployed while the unskilled youths are not given any consideration. However, youths are not a homogenous group and their employment prospects differ according to numerous factors ranging from region to gender to schooling. These phenomena have pushed the Nigerian yoiuths to a stage of anomie and they have adopted dysfunctional methods, such as: armed robbery, prostitution, terrorism, kidnapping, thuggery, militancy, internet scam, fraudulent acts, and so on, in order to cope with the increasing trend of economy meltdown in the country.
This research will x-ray how the impact of unemployment in Nigeria has severely affected youths, using a case study of Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study will examine the rural and urban population of people living in the area responses to unemployment predicaments and their differential variables.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government is an area with an increasing population of 137,100 thousand people, (National Planning Commission, 2006). The population is growing at a very fast rate with large unemployment youths living together in the population. Due to high level of unemployment in the Local Government Area, people have adopted dysfunctional methods such as pick-pocketing, kidnapping, assassination, political thuggery, prostitution, defrauding and so on, in order to provide themselves with income and enhances their societal survival.
People living in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area see these dysfunctional methods as an alternative to their unemployment status in the area, as the government have failed to provide the unemployment opportunities needed as one of the basic necessity in life.
Base on the above statements, many questions arise like, why is the rate of unemployment at an alarming rate in Ibesikpo Local Government Area; despite the area richness in mineral and natural resources, and what are the destructive effect of these social phenomena to the people of Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area?
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study will provide answers to the following research questions;
- What is the extent of youth employment in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area?
- What are the consequences of youth employment in the area?
iii. How is the Government tackling the unemployment plague in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area?
- In what ways has the unemployment rate relates to the high rate of social vices in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area?
- What are the effects of youths unemployment in urban and rural areas of the Local Government.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The Main objective of the study is to critically examine how unemployment can affect the outcome of youth social behaviour and characteristics in the society. In line with the statement of problems, the study will also seek to achieve the following minor objectives:
- To investigate the effect of unemployment on youth activities in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
- To unravel various social phenomena that unemployment is the causative factor in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
- To review Akwa Ibom State Government strategies concerning youth unemployment in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
- To find out the different variables between urban and rural youth unemployment in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
- To help provide various methods to reduce youth unemployment in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
H0: Lack of political will form the government has not hampered and increased unemployment.
H1: Lack of political will form the government has hampered and increased unemployment
H0: Unemployment has not hindered economic progress in Ibesikpo Asutan.
H2: Unemployment has hindered economic progress in Ibesikpo Asutan.
H0: Poor government policy/policies have not increased unemployment in Ibesikpo Asutan.
H3: Poor government policy/policies have increased unemployment in Ibesikpo Asutan.
H0: High level of unemployment does not leads to low standard of living for the people of Ibesikpo Asutan.
H4: High level of unemployment leads to low standard of living for the people of Ibesikpo Asutan.
H0: Economy stability is not one of the factors of unemployment in Ibesikpo Asutan.
H5: Economy stability is one of the factors of unemployment in Ibesikpo Asutan.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be beneficial in many ways; it will serve as a tool for further research work for other researchers who will endeavour to carry out research in the same field in future. The study will help government to provide profer solutions as regard unemployment and its effects on youths in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area in particular, and Nigeria as a whole. It will further help scholars towards the advancement of knowledge, such as reference material, term paper topic, symposium and seminar presentation.
The study will serve as a guide and important tool in the fight against high level of unemployment. It will also serve as a base or premises for other researchers to challenge, amend, and provide corrections to the research work. The study will provide answers to various arms of governments in Nigeria about unemployment and its causative factors in the society, especially the youths.
1.7 LIMITATION/SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will be restricted to Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government, which comprises urban and rural areas. It will restrict itself to one urban centre of Nung Udoe. And rural areas like Obot Idim, Okop Ndua Erong and Obio Aduang.
The study will familiarized itself with various conceptual words, such as unemployment, types of unemployment, youths, Nigeria, Ibesikpo Asutan, poverty, kidnapping, armed robbery among others.
The study will adopt Anomy Model postulated by Emile Durkheim as the theoretical framework for the research.
1.8 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Various researchers have conducted research works on unemployment and its effects on youth in the society. For instance, International Labour Organisation (2010) found out that 35 countries for which data exist, nearly 40% of job seekers have been without work for more than one year and therefore run significant risks of demoralization, loss of self-esteem and mental health problems. More importantly, young people are disproportionately hit by unemployment.
Also in a study conducted in the United States of America (U.S.A) by Thooker (2011) shows that unemployment in the U.S currently stands at an eye-popping of 9.6%. There is 4 out of 10 Americans who want to work but unable to find a job. The situation is particularly affect the citizens who have been out of work for a long time and have therefore lost unemployment benefits that have expired. This situation has forced American government to budget more on social welfare packages for these unemployed youths, and therefore, causing strains on the other sectors of American economy.
White and Wyn (2004), postulates that unemployment is a single factor that affects young people, their families and communities. Today, youth unemployment has become a serious issue all over the world; approximately half of the unemployment group is of youth.
In Nigeria, Awogbenle and Iwoamadi (2010) concluded that youth unemployment was an impeding factor of developing economies. They argued that the situation had become more pathetic for hunting jobs not only for experienced and educated youth. They suggested juveniles to be self-employed through entrepreneurial process rather than to serve others.
Base on the above literature, none of the studies have given comparative analysis concerning unemployment and its effects on youths in contemporary Nigeria. This is why I had decided to focus my consequences on the contemporary societies using a case study of Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Economic retrogression: This is the situation whereby an economy is not progressing that is, an economy returning to an earlier and worse state.
Gross national product: the value of all gods and services produced in the economy during a special period of time, it is the national income of a country.
Economic catastrophe: This is when there is a sudden events causing great damage or suffering in economy.
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.