VANDALIZATION FACTOR AS A SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

Abstract

The present research work is summarized as follows
It creates an opportunity for the comprehensive definition vandalization with special solution. The research work also established that vandals are some of the reasons for the socio-economic development of our nation and all effort should be done to check their menaces to the nation.
Also the research work emphasized that petroleum and electricity products are the main energy sources of the nation which are characterized by vandalization hence the need ensure there constant quality supply.
Finally the research work equally emphasized that both the private and public sector has stake in the immunization of the incidences of vandalization through a programmatic public and private partnership

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

the Nigeria as an independent nation was characterized by good governance and the principle of sustainable management of human and material resources in the 60’s and 70’s, which made up governed to experience. Situation of improved social and economic condition which eras attributed to the affordable cost of energy products such as petroleum and electricity. However in the energy 80’s and aptill date the services of government that has piloted the affairs of this great nation (Nigeria) even those that has failed to realize that energy products such as petroleum and electricity products are the mainstay the entire citizenry of the country this is evident in the level of mal-administration which ahs been recorded in the energy sector in recent times thereby making the cost of these products to be above the reach of the and users.

Nigeria is the largest oil producer in Africa and the elevent largest producer in the World, the main stay of Nigeria economy is the petroluem sector. The Niger Delta region has an area of over twenty eight thousand square kilometers, the Niger Delta area has as part of its features, and meandering waterways. A large part of the area consists of salt water swamp parts of the fresh water further inland have limited agricultural possibilities, the region derived the name (Niger Delta) from being situated at the mouth of the River, Niger, which could be traced back to early 15th century. Comprising the people of the region are the Ijaws (who form the largest ethnic group in the areas, the Itsekiri, Urohobos, Efiks, Ibibios and other smaller ethnic groups. Before the creation of the Nigerian state, economic activities of the Niger Delta in pre-colonial days entailed mainly export of salt and fish to its hinterlands. In the 18th century, when slave trade was at its peak, the region was West Africa’s largest slave exporting area, and this was enhanced by its nearness to the sea. Slave dealers, however, diverted the palm oil trade in the 19th century when slave trade declined. The colonial era gave birth to Nigeria, with the Niger Delta situated at the Southern-Eastern part of the country. As at 1975, three states were under the region namely Rivers, Bendel, and Cross River states, with two Igbp states, Anambra and Imo as the hinterland following the creation of more states and a redefi nition of the areas to be included in the Niger Delta states were Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo and Rivers state. the critical issue of oil pipelines vandalism and its effects on the socioeconomic development in Nigerian society. Nigeria discovered crude oil deposit in large quantity in the Niger Delta region in 1956. By 1958, Shell D‟Arcy had discovered crude oil in twelve areas in the region of which Oloibiri, Afam and Bonu were the most promising. Oil production started in Oloibiri in early 1958 with 3, 000 barrels per day (Ekpu, 2009). Since then, enormous deposits of crude petroleum oil have been found on-shore and off-shore in many parts of the Niger Delta region and father eastwards towards Ohaji and Egbema axis. By 1997, Nigeria‟s proven oil reserve was put as 13.5 billion barrels. However, the estimated recoverable oil was put at 22.5 billion barrels of oil in the region from a total of 164 blocks (Inyang, 2004). In 2015, however, Nigeria was ranked as the 10th largest oil producer in the world with proven oil reserve of about 36 billion barrels, and gas reserve of about 185 Trillion Cubit Feet (TCF), among others (Johnson, 2015). It should be noted that crude petroleum oil has been discovered further inland along Anambra River plain and its production had commenced under Orient Petroleum. This has made Anambra state to join the coveted league of oil producing states in the country. In February 2016, Nigeria was reported to have devised a strategy to maintain crude oil production at 2.2 million barrels per day. The 2016 Federal budget was said to have been pegged at this level of crude oil production. Thus, the Minister of State for Petroleum Resources and Group Managing Director, Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, NNPC, Dr. Ibe Kachikwu was reported to have affirmed that the county‟s oil production would be 2.2mbpd for the month of February 2016. He was reported to have further stated that the country would keep striving to increase crude oil production to meet local demand and not necessarily to sell it in international market. He reportedly noted that Nigeria has considerable local demand for refined petroleum products and, as such, the demand for the four domestic refineries was at least 500, 000 barrels of crude oil per day (See Okoromadu, 2016).
Furthermore the masses been avenue of the ugly tend and also considering the abundance which the nation enjoys in this sector decided it embark on vandalization as the solution to their energy problem.
Basically our focus an this research work is power holding company Nigerian Ltd which in all ramification as representing the energy sector.

 

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 

The present research work provides the following problems
First the problems of bad government or administration that couldn’t manage the energy sector properly. Secondly the problems of vandals who are not aware of the hazards that are associated with vandalization.

Thirdly the problems of illicitly high cost of energy products.
Also the research work present the problems of testable economy due to vandalization  Finally the problem of reduced gross domestic products GDP, due to loss of greater percentage the national income to the incidence of vandalization.

PURPOSE OR OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The proposed research under taken has the following objectives
i. The government on the need to work up to their responsibility of providing affordable and qualitative energy products

  1. It is also aimed at enlightening the masses on the dangers that are associated with vandalization

iii. The research work has the objective of encouraging the independent marketers and other stakeholder in the energy sector to assist the government in checking the activities of vandals.

  1. The research work is medium for establishing the huge amount that is lost annually to vandalization
  2. Finally it is designed also to establish the direct relationship that exists between vandalization and socio-economic development of a nation.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION 

During the course of the research work the following:

  1. To what extent has incidence of vandalization hindered the socio-economic development of Nigeria?
  2. What is the role of the government in putting an-end to cases of vandalization?
    3. Who is to blame for vandalization the public or private sector?
    4. To what extent does vandalization determines the supply of energy products with reference to price and quantity
  3. Are there other means of advancing socio economic development rather then the energy sector?

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY (DELIMITATION) 

My scope of study no this research work is power holding company Nigeria Ltd Enugu the recent research that has been conducted round the energy sector reveals that the above mentioned organization has experienced high incident rate of vandalization. And as such posses the basic features for the discussion of the research cope.

1.6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

The present research work has the following significance:

  1. It will help to reduce cases of vandalization
  2. It will help the country to experience accelerated socio economic development
    iii. It has significance of exposing the risks associated with vandalization, especially possibility of loss of life
  3. The research encourages improved public and private partnership to reduce vandalization
  4. Finally to promote GDP growth for sustainable economic

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS 

During the course of the research work the following terms were identified and defined appropriately energy vandals vandalization socio economic development mal-administration government policy partnership sector private sector etc.

  1. Energy: This is the driven force that is generated by the consumption or utilization of electricity and petroleum products
  2. Vandals: These are the individuals that embarks on vandalization of energy installation

iii. Vandalization: This is the process of destroying our energy installations, which brings about scarcity of the energy products.
iv. Socio economic: This is the combination of social and economic activities to attain sustainable national growth

  1. Development: This is the meaningful and sustainable progress that is experienced by country
  2. Mal-administration: This is the situation of improper management of the resources of the nation

vii. Government: This is the machinery that is established to manage the affairs of a nation

viii. Policy: This is the decision that is taken by the government in the execution of their plans

  1. Partnership: This is the relationship between the public and private sector which yields dividend
  2. Public sector: This is the aspect of the nations economy that is managed by the government.
  3. Private sector: This is the aspect of the economy that is controlled by private individuals

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.     Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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Author: SPROJECT NG