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ACCOUNTING PLANNING AND CONTROL KEY TO EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT


CHAPTER TWO

INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 

Abstract

This study is on accounting planning and control key to effective management. The total population for the study is 200 members of Owerri municipal council was selected randomly. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up chairmen, secretaries, old members and new members were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The process of managing a business or an organization consists of the basic elements of planning, control and decision making. Planning and control are parts and parcel of   our daily likes. Planning and control of cost and operations is the key to good management. Accounting control is a process of developing plans for a company’s    expected operations to help to carry out those plans.   Accounting planning has to do with setting out aims and objectives to be achieved over a period of time and control monitors how well the aims and objective are achieved. The preparation of a company’s finance is the single important aspect of its success. As a tool of management, it can increase the efficiency of the organization at a while since all the departments are involved. The accounting planning and efficiency are not achieved by an organization if they are not properly financed. The efficiency and effectiveness of any organization, therefore depend on a number of factors which may be categorized as clarify of purposes, management, planning, control and communication. There is a need to have a clear knowledge of the objectives of the organizations, otherwise it will not be possible to identify goals set target for their achievements in form of planning, control   and management of its finance.  accounting  management has to do with planning, controlling, acquiring and utilizing of funds in a way that maximized the efficiency of the firm, most especially, (finance is the evaluation and acquisition product assets, procurement of funds and disbursement of which involved funds). The finance received by any business may be influenced by the follow in fixed assets necessary for producing and distribution of products e.g. plants and machines.

  1. b) Raw materials plants and miscellaneous supplies to purchase.
  2. C) Wages and other expenses to be paid. There are alternative involved in accounting decision which include the use of internal and external source. The source is mostly used for the firms operation and should not be over looked when planning finance. They are generated from operation or retained in current assets. The external sources are made up of three main types namely: short term, medium term which consist of back   loan, hire purchase and sale and lease back equipment.  Long term consist of debenture with a fixed charge or floating charge. The need for Accounting planning arises because Accounting resources are limited and costly and even where the resources are available; the areas into which they could be applied to make profit are diverse.  Planning and control acts as a device that   enable management to anticipate changer are adopting it. No business exists without this concept and success in business is proportionate to its planning and skill with which it is controlled. Owerri municipal council officially came into existence on December 5, 1989 during the regime of Gen. Ibrahim Babangida. It is striking to note that the new Owerri urban district was created under   eastern region legal notices No 218 of 1955. Further in 1958 it was renamed country council and in 1960 it was properly called local government. In 1966, East central state was created and the local system was abolished and civil war broke out.  After civil war, in 1971 the local administration was called decision administration and Owerri   division was created comprising the present Owerri municipal, Ngor  okpala L.G.A, Owerri north L.G.A and  Owerri west L.G.A.  in 1976,  under the murtala Mohammed  state creation  exercise, Owerri suddenly bounded bank into  prominence and it regained its lost glory by becoming the capital of  Imo state   with  the development trappings  associated  with the New role Another major local government  review  headed  by chief  Arthur  mbaneto  was  carried  out during  the regime of Gen. Ibrahim  Babangida and on December 5, 1989, the federal government gave Owerri urban, the original Owerri people  a municipal council area which comprises the following villages: umuoronjo, Amawom, umuonyeche, umuodu and umuonyina popularly called Owerri- nchi-ise. Other areas included are: The federal and state housing estates, as well as commercial and industrial layout. Owerri municipal is now seriously  assuming the regional head quarters of the East, with the federal government locating most of its zonal offices  in Owerri, viz: customs, immigration, equally followed suit because of  its strategic location in the heart of Imo state.  According to 2005 national causes figure, Owerri municipal is tentatively put to be 127, 213, where 62, 990 are male and 64, 223 are female. However, this projection has almost been double. Owerri municipal council is strategically located at the center or heart of Imo state. This has caused its dominance of other semi-urban L.G.A.  In Imo state to suffer and upsurge in population and traffic congestion every day. Reasonably, the federal and state government as well as non-governmental and international organizations intervenes appropriately: its peaceful nature will result to total clean-lines as it has assumed for now.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problems associated with this study are the following:

  • Inadequate fund: The sources of revenue of some organization (local government) are just too limited for their commitments. Consequently, they would require subsides from the state government   to execute capital project.
  • Lack of qualified staff: This is true of most local government particularly the professional cadre.  The problem is not unconnected with the unattractive conclusion of service to this cadre in the local government as compares with colleagues in the state/ federal services.
  • Lack of basic infrastructure: Absence of skilled manpower to manage and direct the affairs of local government to manifest in the absence of basic infrastructure.
  • Some organizations are not doing well during their operations due to wrong accounting planning, control and also poor management.
  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Accounting planning and control is the key ingredients of successful management at all levels. The objectives of this study will be:

  • To assess the effectiveness of forecasts of cash receipt and disbursement.
  • To evaluate how the allocation are being carried out and evaluated.
  • To find out the borrowing requirement of organization
  • To find out how organization plan their investment programmes.
  • To know how efficient and effective operation which have been adopted and approved by government to strengthen the accounting base of the council. E.g.  Revenue derivatives, slaughter slab fees, shops and kiosk rate etc.
  • To know and assess the extent of lending, bank borrowing, hire purchase, sale and lease, bank in the council.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: There is no relationship between accounting  planning and control to management efficiency  

H1: There is relationship between accounting planning and control to management efficiency

H02: there is no effectiveness of forecasts of cash receipt and disbursement

H2: there is effectiveness of forecasts of cash receipt and disbursement

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

The important of this study will be in the development of method using Accounting planning and relevant policy decision which if well applied will increase their efficiency and effectiveness. It will also make the government of various areas to know the need of setting a target and how to achieve those targets made and controlling those plans in order to ensure those targets are achieved and monitored. Some importances of Accounting planning are:

Accounting planning and control helps management anticipate and

Systematically prepare for future resources.

  • Planning helps Owerri municipal council keep on top of the ever present charges in information technology.
  • Planning helps to develop many users and the organizations needs.
  • Planning and control facilitates management approval and users view

1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY:

Here, we up how managerial function can assist the local government outline the things to be alone, the method to be adopted to accomplish the purpose and the activity within allowable limits as measured from expectations. These expectations may be implicit or explicitly stated in terms of objectives, plans, procedures or rules and regulations. This study covers Owerri municipal council but the result case shed is generalized for other council in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

  • Finance: This is the evaluation and acquisition of productive assets, procurement of funds and disbursement of funds.
  • Efficiency: this is the effective achievement of result. It is the ratio output to input. This has to do with the equality of people in which the resources are required to achieve an organizational goal.
  • Planning: This is setting centre of an organization in examining the future and scheduling causes of action.
  • Management: This is a process of achieving organizational goals or objectives through the use of people and other resources of the organization.
  • Control: this is the means to ensure that organizations are achieving their objectives

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

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Author: SPROJECT NG