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AN APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO THE LEARNING AND TEACHING OF ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


CHAPETR ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 

Abstract

Economics is one of the pre vocational subjects that has faced several criticisms since it's introduction into the Nigeria National School Curriculum, among the criticisms is the method adopted by the teachers. This study therefore examines the need to apply Information and Communication Technology in the effective teaching and learning of Economics in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. It reviewed the concept of ICT, and its place in teaching and learning. ICT tools that are suitable for use in the three areas of Home Economics were identified. The tools were radio, television, cameras, video and computers others were social networks such as emails and search engines. The benefit of using ICT and factors militating against the effective use of ICT were highlighted. One of the suggestions on ways of solving the problems of using ICT among teachers in this paper is that training of teachers for Home Economics should include basic ICT and computer mastery.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

In today’s world, the use of adoption of information technology (ICT) in teaching of economics in secondary schools could be helpful in the task of capacity building therefore; negative view in this direction could constitute a draw back to the achievement of our science and technology objectives (Adetula 2003). The adoption and application of ICT Information and Communication Technology in teaching of economics in secondary schools has come to occupy an important place in the education sector and national development and indeed the development of the world. This is because it has not only ensured scientific and technological development but it has also opened up more learning opportunities, improved the techniques of teaching and production of materials which reduce time consumption and distance. Because of the adoption of or use of information communication technology in teaching of economics in secondary schools today one can communicate in different ways, fully capable of communicating his or her findings from economical enquiry using power points, spread sheets to present graphs of data from around the world moreover, the evolution of technology can be traced from the earlier days of human existence, when our early ancestors learn the benefits of setting in one area to cultivate farm lands and grow foods rather than wonder from one place to the other. Settling down increase population which necessitate the investigation of tools to increase food production that was the beginning of technology advancement. The computer is one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century which has contributed to the service of humanity through its capacity to automate the highly needed respective calculation earlier inventions have necessitated from the history of man existence, it is clear that there has been a continuous search for a way to reduce computational efforts primitive and mechanical tools to speed up calculation during the ear of predigital electronic computer. Information and community technologies (ICT) have become key tools and had a revolution impact on how we see the world and how we live. Today, the place of ICTs in education and the world in general cannot be undermined. Modern day businesses are conducted and facilitated through the use of telephones, fax machines and computer communication networks through the internet. This phenomenon has given birth to the contemporary ecommerce, e-government, e-medicine, e-banking and eeducation among others. According to Bandele (2006), ICT is a revolution that involves the use of computers, internet and other tele communication technology in every aspect of human endeavour. The author posited that ICT is a simply about sharing and having access to data with ease. It is regarded as the super highway through which formation is transmitted and shared by people all over the world. Ozoji in Jimoh (2007) defined ICT as the handling and processing of information (texts, images, graphs, instructtion etc) for use, by means of electronic and communication devices such as computers, cameras, telephone. Ofodu (2007) also refer to ICT as electronic or computerized devices, assisted by human and interactive materials that can be used for a wide range of teaching and learning as well as for personal use. From these definitions, ICT could therefore be defined as processing and sharing of information using all kinds of electronic device, an umbrella that includes all technologies for the manipu- lation and communication of information. The field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide and in particular developed countries; ICT has made a very profound and remarkable impact on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning research in the educational institutions. Information and community technology has the potentials to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skill; to motivate and engage students in learning to help relate school experiences to work practices; to help create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, contribute to radical changes in school; to strengthen teaching and to provide opportunities for connection between the school and the world. Aribisala (2006) posited that ICTs are increasingly playing an important role in organisations and in society’s ability to produce access, adopt and apply information. They are however being heralded as the tools for the post-industrial age and the foundations for a knowledge economy due to their ability to facilitate the transfer and acquisition of knowledge. Stressing the importance of the use of ICT in schools, Olurunsola (2007) posited that through ICT, educational needs have been met; it changes the needs of education as well as the potential processes. Message can be communicated through the e-mail, telex or telephones particularly the mobile ones. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid teleological, social, political and economic transformation, which has eventuated in a network society organized around ICT (Yusuf, 2005). The author posited that ICT is an indispensable part of educational administration as its application makes institutions more efficient and productive, thereby engendering a variety of tools to enhance and facilitate teachers’ pedagogical activities. For instance, e-learning is becoming one of the most common means of using ICT to provide education to students both on and off campus by means of teaching online offered via web-based systems. Looking at the role of education in nation building and the population explosion in the secondary schools these days, the use of ICT in the teaching-learning process becomes imperative. This is true because its adoption by the teachers will enhance effective teaching. Such issues like good course organisation, effective class management, content creation, self-assessment, self-study collaborative learning, task oriented activities, and effective communication between the actors of teaching learning process and research activities will be enhanced by the use of ICT based technology. Teaching and learning has gone beyond the teacher standing in front of a group of pupils and disseminating information to them without the students’ adequate participation (Ajayi, 2008). The author posited that with the aid of ICT, teachers can take students beyond traditional limits, ensure their adequate participation in teaching and learning process and create vital environments to experiment and explore. This new development is a strong indication that the era of teachers without ICT skills are skills are gone. Any classroom teacher with adequate and professional skills in ICT utilization will definitely have his students perform better in classroom learning. A cursory look at the secondary schools in Nigeria has shown that many teachers in the system still rely much on the traditional “chalk and talk” method of teaching rather than embracing the use of ICT. According to Okebukola (1997), computer is not part of classroom technology in over 90% of public schools in Nigeria, thus the chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate classroom activities. This is an indication that the students are still lagging behind in the trend of changes in the world. This presupposes that there is the tendency for the teachers and students to be denied the opportunities which ICT offers in the teaching-learning activities. There is the need to replace the traditional pedagogical practices that still underpin the educational system is the country, hence the need for the application of ICT in Nigerian Secondary Schools. The various ICT facilities used in the teaching learning process in schools according to Babajide and Bolaji (2003), Bryers (2004), Bandele (2006) and Ofodu (2007) include; radio, television, computers, overhead projecttors, optical fibres, fax machines, CD-Rom, Internet, electronic notice board, slides, digital multimedia, video/ VCD machine and so on. It appears some of the facilities are not sufficiently provided for teaching – learning process in the secondary schools. This might account for why teachers are not making use of them in their teaching. According to Ajayi (2008), the use of these facilities, involves various method which include systematized feedback system computer-based operation/network, video conferencing and audio conferencing, internet/ worldwide websites and computer assisted instruction. It must however be stressed that the effective use of the various method of the ICT in teaching leaning depends on the availability of these facilities and teachers’ competence in using them. Observation has shown that there are no functional internet facilities in most of the secondary schools. This appears to hinder the extent of teachers’ exposure to the use of ICT in teaching. Teachers as well as students appear not to be knowledgeable in the use of ICT because there appears not to be any official training for both the teachers and the students in the schools

The researcher observed that ICT is not effectively used in our classrooms situations; this is partly because most of the teachers are not computer literate, therefore making it difficult for them to operate ICT materials. The issue of power, which is needed to power the computers, is another problem affecting ICT application in the classrooms.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

The use of Information Communication Technology in teaching economics in secondary schools, like any other devices is because of the ability or its capability to store large volumes of data, organize and analyze data accurately in other to produce quality information it has been the rapidly expanding trend. Could it be that there is a problem in the application of the ICT in economics classroom activities?

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the impact of applying ICT to the teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Nigeria. But to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;

  1. To ascertain the effect of ICT on the effective teachings of economics
  2. To ascertain the role of ICT in the learning process of economics in secondary schools
  • To examine the relationship between ICT and teaching and learning of economics
  1. To ascertain the impact of ICT in the teaching process of economics
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

To aid the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher,

H0: ICT does not play any significant role in the learning process of economics

H1: ICT does play a significant role in the learning process of economics

H02: there is no significant relationship between the use of ICT in the teaching and learning process of economics.

H2: there is a significant relationship between the use of ICT in the teaching and learning process of economics.

 

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of secondary schools to ensure the availability of computers and other communication gadget to aid the effective teaching of economics, the study will also be useful to economic teachers as the study seek to enumerate the importance of teachers efficiency on ICT as this will aid in his effective delivery of his job. The study will also be useful to researchers who intends to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point for further research, finally the study will be useful to students, teachers, lecturers academia’s and the general public as the study will add to the pool of existing literature.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers an application of information technology to the learning and teaching of economics in Nigeria, in the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

 1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

ICT

Information and communication technology is an another/extensional term for information technology which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications, computers

Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work

Teaching

A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone

 

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

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Author: SPROJECT NG