This survey and study investigates the effectiveness of print advertisements on consumer purchase decisions on beverage products and the study focuses on the Cadbury Nigeria Plc Advertisements. The research methodology covered the research design, method of data analysis, identification of population and determination of sample size. Questionnaires were designed and administered to the marketing executive and Managers of Cadbury Nigeria Plc. Ikeja, Lagos and selected consumers on the basis of their age and education within the Lagos Mainland Area. The study was carried out as a survey. A total number of 100 questionnaires were administered to respondents. The sampling size and technique was designed using the Tara Yamanne Model and the techniques that were used in collection of data for this study was based on the primary and secondary data collection. Survey research was adapted while data were sourced using primary sources with questionnaire as research instrument. Primary analysis and hypotheses testing are then carried out using percentage and chi-square respectively. Also, the Rennis Likert five point scales was used in reporting Judgment. From the findings, it was clear that advertising is the most effective marketing tool to reach out to customers. It can help to improve/maintain relationship with customers and investors of the company. It has led to increase in sales and market shares of the Cadbury Nigeria Plc Brand. Advertising also encourages and generates wider patronage of products. The larger market is heterogeneous; hence, there is need for a continued product improvement and advertising, thereby, dominating other production industries and stamp its achievements globally.
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The essence of being in business by any business outfits is to produce for sales and profits. However, taking decision on sales is the most difficult tasks facing many business executives. This is because it is different to predict, estimate or determine with accuracy, potential customer’s demands as they are uncontrollable factors external to an organization. Considering, therefore, the importance of sales on business survival and the connection between customers and sales, it is expedient for organizations to engage in programmes that can influence consumer’s decisions to purchase its products. This is where advertising and brand management are relevant of all marketing weapons. Advertising has leading impact on viewer’s mind, as its exposure is much more (Katke, 2007).
Advertising makes mass marketing possible by making prospective customer aware of the availability and unique quality of specific goods and services. A good advertising not only persuades the customer to buy only but also gives them the options that can be considered when they purchase to distinguish the products among many, so when the customer goes to purchase anything, he will once think about it that there is a certain product with certain features ( Agwu, 2013; Ikpefan, O.A., Owolabi, F.& Agwu, M.E. 2014).
Advertisement evolves date back in ancient times. Different societies used different types of symbols for the promotion of products and services for attracting consumers. However, these pictures were used for a limited area for promotion. In modern time, advertisement has become important way to promote products and services and is used for communication purpose (Hussainy,S.K., Riaz,K., Kazi, S.K. & Herari, G.M. 2008). The major aim of advertising is to impact on buying behavior. However, this impact about brand is changed or strengthened frequently people’s memories. Memories about the brand consist of those associations that are related to brand name in consumer mind. These brands cognitions influence consideration, evaluation and finally purchase. (Romaniuk & Sharp, 2004). Company’s ability to maintain satisfying customer relationship requires an understanding of consumer buying behavior
As the market is surplus with several products or services, most companies make similar function claim, so, it has become extremely difficult for companies to differentiate their products or services based on functional attributes (Hussainy,S.K., Riaz, K., Kazi, A.K.,& Herari, G.M. 2008). Differentiates based on functional abilities which are shown in advertisement are never long lasting as the competitors could copy the same. (Hussainy et al. 2008). Therefore, the marketers give the concept of brand image. By introducing the character of caring mother in ads through the marketer creates emotions in the minds of consumers (Jalees, 2006). Doing so, advertiser creates those types of ads which carry emotional bond with consumer. Therefore, that consumer is more likely to associate with ads of those brands which have emotional values and messages. Today, environment without advertising marketers cannot deliver any information or messages about their products or services to their viewers or buyers.
This research will focus on how Cadbury-Nigeria PLC. one of the leading independent manufacturer and distributor of well known beverage products has been able to associate the effectiveness of print advertising to influence and persuade its consumers on purchase decisions on beverage product.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The advertisement is not only to attract and hold the intention of the readers but also to create an interest and desire to buying in him or acquire about the advertised article for this appeal to be as much knowledge as possible to human nature instinct reasons, sentiments, habit, ideal e.t.c are required. The real world of stimulus (the ad) – response (the action of the target) is complicated to measure because human reaction isn’t always predictable and because people are rarely exposed to a stimulus in a vacuum. Well- designed print research can, however, identify whether an ad has the elements that should make it effective in the market place as well as determine what and how it communicates. Advertising should create to address clearly defined objectives and strategies.
The purpose of the print research then should be to identify how effectively the advertising goes about achieving these objectives. The research purpose is not necessarily to determine how persuasive the ad is or how well the ad sells the product. (Though some copy-testing approaches make far-reaching claims in this area.) Print research often has a much more pragmatically measurable objective. Without this specificity in advertising objective and strategy, the research design would originate from no specific purpose and thus be of limited value. The answer to when advertising research is needed is: almost always, but especially for an ad in a new campaign. Given the constraint of research costs, most advertising is not studied. This is a mistake because the cost of conducting the research is usually justified by the results from the research. A common justification for not funding advertising research is that the market place results will not be the real answer as to the ads effectiveness.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To guide this project work, the following research questions are formulated:
- What is the effect of print advertisement on consumer behavior and purchase decisions on beverage products?
- What are the influences of print advertisement adopted by the beverage industry on organizational effectiveness?
- What is the influence of print advertising on the profitability of the organization?
- What recommendation would be made for further improvement in print advertising and brand management?
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine activities of Cadbury Nigeria Plc with respect to an evaluation of the effectiveness of print advertisement on consumer purchase decision of beverage product. This research work is also designed to achieve the following specific objectives:
- To examine the effect of print advertisement on consumer purchase decision on beverage product.
- To determine the influence of print advertising adopted by the beverage product industry on organizational effectiveness.
- To examine the influence of print advertising on consumer buying behavior.
- To make recommendation for further improvement in print advertising and brand Management.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no effect of print advertisement on consumer purchase decision of beverage products.
H1: There is an effect of print advertisement on consumer purchase decision of beverage products.
H0: There is no influence of print advertising on the profitability of the Organization.
H1: There is an influence of print advertising on the profitability of the Organization.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on an evaluation of the effectiveness of print advertisement on consumer purchase decisions on beverage products. The study will be limited strictly to the beverage products of which Cadbury Nigeria PLC. Agidingbi, Ikeja, Lagos is a part. The area is selected due to the proximity and convenience to the researcher. The study will survey some marketing executives and some selected consumers on the basis of age and education in Lagos metropolis using a questionnaire. In looking at print advertising, the study does not attempt to examine its budgetary allocation and sales revenue derivable as a result of its use since other things contribute to consumer purchase decisions, rather, it will however, look at how print advertising has created favorable usage for the products, thus, changing the demand level.
- SIGNFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Print advertisement research can be classified as an element of an ad that appears to influence behavior. In general, researchers believe that understanding how an ad performs in an attainable and realistic objective, then understanding these elements through research can be of significant value. Exactly which of these elements should be explored through research is a function of the ad objectives and to some degree the ad execution.
The effectiveness of print advertisement is a catalyst and a good marketing instrument in any market oriented economy as it helps firms remain in business and mostly increase sales in off season. This research work is highly significant on producers of beverage products as it will assist them on how to send highly impactful messages to their esteemed target audience. It will also assist them on how to save cost of marketing communications on the long run. The outcome of the research will also benefit the producers on how to use print advertising to build long term client-customer relationships. This research will benefit consumers of beverage products as the use of print advertisement will afford consumers with clear and credible messages.
Finally, the findings of the study can motivate human resources managers to focus attention on issues critical to effective development of their work force and it will be in valuable benefit to the organization as the study suggests ways of improving consumer purchase decisions through print advertisement.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In the course of the study, obstacles were encountered. Some of them include time constraints where limited time was allotted to the research for gathering of data and sourcing to research materials. Also, the general attitude of the respondents to filling and turning in questionnaires was not encouraging as some refused to fill in the forms while some turned in theirs’ late. Also certain vital information that would have contributed immensely to the study was not released by the staff of the company contacted for the interview. All these notwithstanding, the researcher believe that the research was well carried out within the available resources. As such, the findings could be relied upon to that extent. The limited time no doubt prevented me from having extensive close views of relevant document in the company. To some extent, this problem as also affected the project because the top management of the company refused to release some of the relevant document which should have aided to proper completion of this project work fear of disclosing official secret of confidence within the establishment.