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The problems that prompted this study on the assessment of housing problems in the Peri urban area of Calabar metropolis include shortage in housing units, overcrowding, high rents, and delay in plan approvals, substandard housing and squalid residential environments. The objectives were to examine if there is any significant relationship between housing problems and the development of Calabar metropolis, to ascertain the impact of housing supply on the development of real estate sector in Calabar metropolis, to examine the influence of housing problem on the growth of Calabar metropolis to proffer suggested solution to the identified problems above in Calabar, among others. The hypothesis tested was, to examine the relationship between housing problems on the development of Calabar metropolis. Data collected were gathered through the questionnaire. The simple random sampling method was adopted Chi-square technique was used to test the hypothesis. Based on the foregoing, a number of recommendations were made among which are: subsidization of the cost of building plots, the delays in plan approvals should be checked, government should increase its participation in the housing sector and the control in the price of houses as well as rents.



  • Background of the study

Urbanization, one of the most ancient global phenomena, has significantly shaped the lifestyles, recreational activities, and work patterns of people (Aduwo et al., 2016; Streule et al., 2020). According to UN-Habitat (2010), over 50 percent of the world’s population currently resides in urban areas, and projections suggest that by 2050, this figure will rise to 70 percent, primarily in developing nations. In the context of this trend, Nigeria, identified as Africa’s most populous nation, stands out with a burgeoning population exceeding 200 million and boasting over a hundred cities (Oluseyi, 2016; Akintande et al., 2020). Cities in developing nations, such as Calabar metropolis, are grappling with heightened demands for housing and land due to the escalating pace of urbanization (Oluseyi, 2016). However, this rapid urbanization seems to create obstacles to entering the formal land market, exacerbating challenges related to housing, urban poverty, uncertain land tenure, and the emergence of informal settlements (Cohen, 2016; Agbola & Agunbiade, 2019). This mounting pressure on the land market has compelled the urban poor to lay claim to underdeveloped land within the peri-urban fringe of cities in order to address their housing and urban land requirements (Grgic et al., 2012; Saleem et al., 2014). This behavior is partly driven by the accessibility of land in these areas, where the cost remains reasonable. Additionally, the lenient oversight of development control authorities allows for incremental and sometimes haphazard development to occur. (Edet Sedeke E 2023). In accordance with Bourne’s findings in 2019, the housing predicament revolves around a complex web of institutions and processes that attempt to bridge the gap between the supply and demand of housing. Land possesses a central position to human culture and institutional development (Ahmad, 2012). Land is one of the resources in any city that need to be effectively managed for better urban and peri- urban management outcomes (Ayman Kamel, 2004). Urbanization is one of the oldest global phenomenon currently shaping the way we live and intricately challenges our housing, transportation, land use among others (Egidario et al, 2016). The urban the periphery serves as a space for multifaceted growth, encompassing industrial functions due to spatial constraints in the city center. Moreover, it serves as a housing solution for the urban populace. Collaborative involvement of local, state, and federal authorities is essential in guiding urbanization. This coordination aligns urban planning agencies with pertinent stakeholders, directing efforts toward housing expansion in the peri-urban regions (Adedire and Adebamowo, 2018).

Areas at the outskirts of urban centers, closely neighboring city cores, are renowned for rapid shifts in their housing landscapes. Swift developmental changes transpire within concise timeframes. Urbanization and its associated growth are modern lifestyles that correlate with economic advancement in numerous nations. Hence, the degree of urbanization often correlates with the socioeconomic status of residents (Tamira, 2016). Consequently, the pace of urbanization has reached an unprecedented magnitude, extending cities beyond their confines into adjacent peri-urban zones and rural villages, where substantial economic exchanges occur (Pallabi and Veronica, 2016).

The term “peri urban” is used interchangeably with various expressions such as suburban regions, extensions, outskirts, sprawl areas, peripheral lands, transition zones, rural hinterlands, urban fringes, middle band areas, commuting zones, urban edges, and urban frontiers (Berry, 1990; Daniel, 1999; Inhoff, 2000; John, 2008; Mandere, 2010; Ravetz et al, 2013). Scholars have provided differing definitions of “peri-urban.” For instance, Pallabi and Veronica (2016) describe it as a haven for migrating populations unable to afford city life, transitioning from agriculture to non-agricultural activities. Appiah et al (2014) view peri-urban land as agriculturally valuable land beyond cities, purchased by urban residents for residential or commercial use. “Peri-urban” also refers to rural agricultural zones within urban built-up areas or predominantly rural agricultural spaces (Achamyeleh, 2015). This involves various parties: buyers and sellers, tenants and landlords, construction companies and consumers, all engaged in the exchange of homes and housing services as valuable assets. Unfortunately, the current reality is marred by distressing housing conditions and soaring costs, an issue that cannot be ignored. As the population burgeons, an alarming number of individuals find themselves deprived of fundamental necessities such as proper sanitation, reliable water supply, affordable and durable housing, and adequate living space. The absence of these essentials directly impacts the physical and mental well-being of urban communities. The global trend of urbanization is on the rise, and this holds true for places like Nigeria, where urban growth has surged over the last two decades. In the early 1950s, Nigeria had around 56 cities, housing about 10.6 percent of the total population. This proportion escalated significantly to 19.1 percent in 1963 and reached 24.5 percent in 2015. Presently, the national population has surpassed 150 million, with urban inhabitants constituting over 30 percent. (Ajanlekoko, 2011). Affordable housing refers to accommodation that can be procured using household income without sacrificing other essential needs. Strukyk (2015) defines housing affordability as the capacity to secure a dwelling of suitable size and minimum sanitary standards, while still having enough income to cover the basic consumption of essential goods and services. However, no nation has fully managed to provide shelter for its entire populace. In various developed countries, housing has been given a high priority in policy and budgetary decisions as part of a deliberate effort to address national objectives rooted in well-defined housing policies. Housing market analysis involves a thorough examination of present and future housing supply and demand trends within a specific area. This process identifies factors influencing supply and demand and establishes strategies for meeting these needs. Unlike conventional markets, the housing market possesses distinct characteristics. It deals with the exchange of property rights and assets and is inherently immobile. Transactions within this market occur without a defined physical marketplace; in fact, they can even take place remotely, facilitated by technology like phone transactions. The distinctive attributes of buildings, their historical and cultural significance, spatial uniqueness, architectural intricacies, and surrounding greenery all profoundly impact housing quality, as perceived by residents. The spatial design, supplemented by specific utilization patterns, render these areas captivating and inviting, drawing both locals and distant visitors alike. The necessity for comfortable, safe, prestigious, and satisfying housing remains a universally agreed-upon principle. Adequate housing quality not only curbs expenditures on health, recreation, crime prevention, and pollution control for both residents and governments but also often amplifies overall productivity and prosperity. (Olanrewaju & Woon, 2017; Gan, Zuo, Wen & She, 2019). The deficiency or inadequacy of housing, often a consequence of rapid urbanization, has led to a pressing demand for housing and a decline in its quality. This is evident across Calabar, where housing challenges are exacerbated by inadequate investment in medium and low-income housing by both private entities and the government. Field observations highlight how private developers largely control available land, focusing primarily on luxury apartment developments that are far beyond the financial reach of most urban dwellers. Consequently, a housing crisis has emerged, driving urban inhabitants to seek self-made housing solutions, which have severe environmental repercussions.

Animashaun’s observations in 2010 reveal that the issue extends beyond mere housing adequacy to encompass housing quality, which, in turn, has diverse social, psychological, environmental, and cultural impacts on residents. The discourse around housing quality in Calabar and Nigeria persists as the nations have yet to effectively implement comprehensive social housing initiatives since their initial national development framework. This study endeavors to evaluate the socioeconomic implications of rent, investigate the relationship between rent affordability and housing quality, as well as examine the link between income and housing expenditures.


The housing challenges in Calabar have been exacerbated by a lack of interest among land developers in constructing affordable medium and low-cost housing options. Initial surveys within the city have revealed that the majority of land is under the control of private housing developers who prioritize the construction of high-cost or luxury residences to maximize their profits. This emphasis on upscale housing has driven the cost of housing beyond what is manageable for most residents, particularly those with moderate to lower incomes. Consequently, this situation has given rise to housing difficulties for the urban poor in these income brackets. As highlighted by Animashaun (2010), Calabar faces a particularly severe issue with insufficient availability of residential housing and escalating rental expenses. The housing predicament extends beyond quantity and quality limitations, impacting various dimensions of housing such as psychological, social, environmental, and cultural aspects. The discourse surrounding housing quality and accessibility has been a recurring topic among policymakers and scholars in Nigeria, especially in Calabar. This has prompted an essential question regarding the feasibility of housing affordability for the general populace. The central challenge lies not only in the provision of housing units but also in ensuring that these units are within the financial reach of the average Calabar resident. This backdrop has prompted this study to delve into several aspects. It seeks to explore the socioeconomic implications of rental costs on respondents, evaluate the interplay between the affordability of rent and housing quality, as well as scrutinize the relationship between income and housing expenditures. Additionally, the study aims to investigate the factors influencing the selection of rental housing within specific districts of Calabar. The rapid and unprecedented population growth, fueled by both rural-urban migration and natural population increase, has contributed to uncontrolled urbanization, urban sprawl, and the emergence of informal settlements. This phenomenon is particularly noteworthy in the context of Calabar, where the metropolis is experiencing a substantial population surge without a proportional increase in the development of new housing units. Consequently, the available dwelling units are often priced exorbitantly, presenting a barrier to affordable housing for the low-income demographic. As a result, there is an escalating demand for more affordable housing alternatives, leading to urban sprawl on the outskirts of the city. The occupancy rate within these informal settlements remains remarkably high due to tenants willing to pay relatively high rents in accordance with their income levels. In light of these circumstances, this study takes on significant relevance as it seeks to comprehensively examine the dynamics of housing supply and demand within the Calabar metropolis.


The aim of this study is to assess housing problems in the peri urban areas of Calabar metropolis. The specific objective of the studies are;

  1. To examine if there is any significant relationship between housing problems and the development of peri urban area of Calabar metropolis
  2. To ascertain the impact of housing supply on the development of real estate sector in peri urban areas in Calabar metropolis,
  • To examine the influence of housing problem on the growth of Calabar metropolis
  1. To proffer suggested solutions to the identified problem

The following research questions where formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

  1. Is there any significant relationship between housing problems and the development of peri urban area of Calabar metropolis?
  2. Does housing supply have any impact on the development of real estate sector in peri urban areas in Calabar metropolis?
  • Does housing problem have influence on the growth of Calabar metropolis?



The following research hypothesis were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

H0: There is no significant relationship between housing problems and the development of peri urban area of Calabar metropolis

H02: Housing supply does not have any impact on the development of real estate sector in peri urban areas in Calabar metropolis

H03: Housing problem does not influence the growth of Calabar metropolis


Upon the conclusion of this study, it is anticipated that the findings will hold significant value for students of estate management. The study aims to provide valuable insights into the evolution of the real estate sector within the Calabar metropolis. Furthermore, these findings are poised to offer valuable guidance to researchers who intend to undertake similar investigations, as they can reference the outcomes as a foundational resource for their own inquiries. The study’s implications are not confined to academia alone. Students, educators, scholars, lecturers, and the broader public stand to benefit from the study’s results. By adding to the body of existing literature on the subject, the study’s findings will enrich the understanding of the matter at hand. Additionally, they will contribute to the overall knowledge base related to this subject, facilitating a more comprehensive comprehension of the topic’s nuances.