This study was carried out to examine causes and consequences of pre-marital sex among secondary school students in Nsukka local government area. Specifically, the study examined the factors responsible for secondary school student’s involvement in pre- marital sex. The study also evaluated the effects of premarital sex among secondary school students. Lastly, the study recommend solutions to premarital sex among secondary school students. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 30 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that pressure, economic reason, parental influence and search for academic advantage are some of the causes of pre-marital sex among secondary school student. Also, some of the effect of pre marital sex among secondary school students is unplanned pregnancy, school drop out,victims of rituals and Poor academic performance. Lastly, some of the way to curb pre marital sex among secondary school students is that counselors should constantly be in contact with the youths to educate them on sexuality, parents should provide the necessary materials for their children in order to discourage premarital sex, health educators should work in collaboration with the curriculum designers in the secondary school education and Sensitization on the effect of pre marital sex. The study thereby recommend that parents should endeavour to provide the necessary materials for their children in order to discourage them from premarital sex among in-school adolescents. Parents should ensure that useful pieces of information on sexuality are provided for adolescents at home in order to guide them against been influenced by destructive information from friends and media.
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Sex is a term that is universally used so you would expect a good amount to be known about it. This is in part because the majority of societies regulate sexual activity. The family unit is the place where sexual activity or interactions are scheduled to occur between two sexes. Premarital sexual sex isn’t restricted to only young couples and a lot of couples who aren’t married are at risk of pre-marital sexual relations. This is evident from the number of unintended pregnanciesthat end up in back street clinics. Alo (2008) reported that there’s a high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases between the ages of 15-24, and that the increasing percentage of girls leaving school due to unplanned pregnancy, is the result of premarital and sexual sex. In a recent report published from the Center for the Study of Adolescents (C S A) The age at which sexual debate has reached an record lows of 8-12 years. In actuality 8 of 10 teens were sexually active before reaching 20 years old. This raises the chance of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted illnesses as well as the likelihood to dropout of college. Furthermore, the negative effects of premarital sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV are more severe for females. If a young woman is pregnant, she puts her and the child she is carrying at danger. The reason for this is that the body of a young girl has not evolved to the point where it is capable of handling childbirth security. Even if a mother of a young age is able to avoid a variety of health risks however, she will still have to face the significant responsibilities as a parent. It is not the case that she is unable to attend school, and, unless it is in exceptional instances, she might never return to school. Alo (2008) has stated that the modern world is becoming more free in a variety of ways, and premarital sexual relations are becoming more common. Premarital sex is leading to a variety of social issues including disorderly households and the deterioration of morality of the public.
The lack of economic and social opportunities for women, girls and their families, as well as the pressures put on them, in conjunction with the gender gap, which is referred to be the cause of exits from the educational system. Mensch as well as Lioyd (1998) stated that there are a variety of outcomes from unsatisfactory schooling bad academic results and a reluctance to or a preference for, the early years of childhood.
In the study of Mensch as well as Lioyd (1999) the pregnant women are often believed to affect the educational progress of adolescents, and the teenage reproductive behaviors could be linked to school achievement, given that several of the same issues can cause dropping out and early child carrying.
Zabin as well as Kiragu (1998) They believe they believe that within sub-saharan African schools, they could increase the likelihood of sexual initiation, particularly because it is a way of removing youngsters from the oversight of their traditional caregivers. In the end, increasing numbers of adolescents are forced to navigate sexual maturation and participation in a completely different setting that is different from the previous generations.
Alongside the increasing trend in the age at which marriage is legally binding as well as the rise in the age of the first sexual activity among women in their teens is either the same or increased. However, Mensch etal (2006) stated that there has been a shift in several countries toward an increase in the number of women who have sex prior to marriage at the time that an adolescents are still attending school.
As per the Oxford dictionary, 6th edition sexual relations are defined as an act of physical contact between two individuals who touch their genital organs, which could include sexual contact. Pre-marital sex refers to sexual encounter between two people of opposite sexual partners, usually between two lovers in the absence of or prior to the marriage blessings. The raging pace of premarital sexual activity among secondary school students , particularly within Enugu West and Nigeria at all is a problem, and when not controlled properly, can cause a loss of cultural values that we have in our society. It not only destroys our values of culture however it also affects our moral beliefs. Secondary students or youths take part in the ritual of premarital sex once they begin to notice changes and growth in their bodies, such as the development of voices for boys, the growth of pubic hairs, an increase in the mammary gland (breast) and a rise in hips for girls, a more melodious voice for girls , etc. The growth and development of both genders are not easily observed outside of what is known as the adolescent stage. As per Oxford dictionary, 6th edition Adolescence is defined as the stage in the life of a person in which he/she changes from being a child to an adult. Also, it is a stage of transition for physical and mental development of childhood and maturation. Eze (2001) defines the term “adolescence” as a the development of a human being in an adult who is between the ages 20-14, while an adolescent is 13-14 years of age. Physically, adolescents remain in the grip of their genetic inheritance but the inheritance is influenced by changing social circumstances like family, friends at school, dating, and friendship. Psychological development and puberty boosts desire of the inmate to explore sexual experiences and allows individuals to express or perform these feelings with partners who are willing to share the same sexuality. Socially, adolescent have been interacting for a long time with their parents, peers as well as teachers. But there are new opportunities which allow relationships to take on in various forms, specifically with regards to the opposite gender as well as intimacy, dating, and. Furthermore, the cognitive growth of adolescents involves thinking processes which seem more abstract, idealistic allow them to create distinct, distinctive identities that allows them to interact with the other sex.
Adolescence is the time to be concerned about the beginning of the rise of antisocial behaviour, like premarital sexual activity and its negative consequences that include unplanned pregnancies, criminal activities abortion, deportation from school, health issues, just to name some. The issue of adolescent pregnancy is an issue for many secondary school in Nigeria and the majority of teenagers become pregnant outside of wedlock. Based on a rough estimate one out of 10 adolescent females is pregnant every year. Other outcomes when secondary schools are concerned is the teenager’s mother leaving school and not being able to find employment, or becoming dependent on welfare, and becoming an expense to their family, which allows them to become a victim for human traffickers or becoming involved in commercial sexual activities.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Pre-marital sex has been a subject that has sunk deep into the fabric of society in general and especially in the Nsukka local government. It is an issue that has been controversial everywhere, drawing an outright condemnation. It is important to recognize that some elements such as poverty, influence of media as well as alcohol and drug abuse as well as sexual pressures allow and promote pre-marital sex however, they pay little or any attention to its political, social and economic consequences. Premarital sexual sex has led to the rise in deaths of secondary school students in the Nsukka local government area, particularly girls, when fighting over one boy. One of the consequences is unintentional pregnancy, as a result of trying to end or abort the child (s) or even lose their lives. The growth of this parasitic-like phenomenon known as premarital sex because it is not properly investigated, is not just damaging the value of our society, but also hinder the development of our economy and growth.
Premarital sex can affect the social class and the achievement of many young people especially secondary school pupils. In this context, it is that researchers seek to determine the causes and effects of premarital relationship sex as well as to understand the extent to which the factors and effects can contribute to the problems within the society by employing Nsukka local government area ,Anambra State as a case study.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to examine causes and consequences of pre-marital sex among secondary school students in Nsukka local government area. The specific objective is as follows
- To examine the factors responsible for secondary school students involvement in pre- marital sex.
- To evaluate the effects of premarital sex among secondary school students.
- To recommend solutions to premarital sex among secondary school students.
- RESEARCH QUESTION
The following questions have been prepared for the study
- What are the factors responsible for secondary school students involvement in pre- marital sex?
- What are the effects of premarital sex among secondary school students?
- How can premarital sex among secondary school students be curbed?
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will examine the causes and consequences of pre-marital sex among secondary school students in Nsukka local government area. Hence the study will be significant to the following :
Government: this study is significant as it will expose the government on the need to look into the school curriculum in other to include subject like moral education.
Ministry of education: this study is significant to the ministry of education as it will be exposed to the moral decay in the educational sector so as to run a campaign against pre marital sex in the secondary schools
Academia: this study will be beneficial to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will examine the factors responsible for secondary school students involvement in pre- marital sex. The study will also evaluate the effects of premarital sex among secondary school students. Lastly, the study will recommend solutions to premarital sex among secondary school students. Hence the study will be delimited to Secondary schools in Nsukka local government area, Anambra state.
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher.