This project considers the Design and Construction of a Solar Power System. The solar panel is constructed with the aid of 72 solar cells per panel and 6 panel rating 310 watts were used in this work. The batteries for this work is 200AH, 12V deep cycle type were used. It is meant to supply current to 3.5KVA load estimated for a building. The solar panel constitutes five major components, which are the solar panel, solar charge controller, battery bank, inverter and electrical connectors and cable. The solar panel was constructed using the solar cell while other components were sized. The principle behind this project is that of photovoltaic effect. The system operates like a bank; withdrawals from the battery to power the appliances can be compensated by commensurate deposit of energy from the solar panels. The project was successfully carried out with aims and objectives achieved. It can now be of benefit to the building and companies, firms, schools, workshop and anywhere electrical power supply is needed.
1.1 Background of the Study
This project involves the conversion of sunlight into electric power (electrical) directly using the Photo Voltaic (PV); or indirectly using concentrated Solar power (CSP).
The concentrated solar power uses lenses or mirrors and tracking devices to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.
The photovoltaic converts light energy into electric current using the photovoltaic effect. In the photovoltaic effect, sunlight is absorbed by the solar panel whereby causing excitation of an electron or other charge – carrier to a higher energy level.
Solar energy is readily available and renewable, hence it provides a safe, clean and cheap substitute to the increasing problems of over-dependence on plants, generators etc. for electricity which is also, the air pollution resulting from the exhaust from plants and generators has given the ‘generation of electricity through solar’ an edge. The solar power system is cheap, noiseless because it constitutes no moving parts in the system; it is durable, reliable and requires little or no maintenance practice to sustain it.
Moreover, the solar power system has an edge especially in areas where electricity cannot be sent to through transmission lines.
The question is, what is the amount or how can the electricity being generated through the solar power be quantified? The amount (voltage) of electricity so generated through the solar power system depends on the intensity of the solar energy incident on the solar panel. Therefore, it is best used in summer regions like Nigeria Cameroun etc. where the intensity of solar energy is high compared the winter regions.
The solar power system consist of an array of photovoltaic which collects a substantial amount of sunlight and converts it into Direct Current (DC) which fluctuate naturally with the intensity of the sun, hence the inverter is used to convert this fluctuations of the DC signals to the desired / required Alternating Current Consumed in homes.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In our country today interrupted power supply has been a serious issue and it makes life difficult and unbearable because people on earth, firms, industries, churches, shopping malls, school, and even business center etc. depends on power supply for the day-to-day running of their activities.
However, some have resorted to plants and generators to enables them meet up. But these machines, with their emissions of gasses to the atmosphere pose health challenges. If constant supply of electricity is ensured, all the setbacks would be forestalled. This is exactly what this project intends to proffer solution to.
1.3 Aims and Objectives
The main purpose of this project is to develop an important power system will that power a load of 3.5KVA in a building.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This work entails the design and construction of a solar power system that can carry the load of 3.5KVA to power in a building. Solar power system serves as an alternative source of electrical power supply which is needed in our society.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this work shall cover the following areas;
- The work will cover the selection of solar charge controller, battery and inter-connectors (cables) based on the requirement of the system.
- Design analysis of the solar panels
iii. The economics analysis (bills of engineering measurement and evaluation).
- Testing and experimentation of the system