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Planning profession provides both tangible goods and intangible services which may include a conducive and convenient environment and a sustainable environmental management system in the form of space for human socioeconomic and physical processes, socio-cultural assertion of beliefs, needs and values. One of such main social needs provided by planning is transportation. The need to move around due to the uneven distribution of human needs and activities and processes in time and space has led to the evolution and development of transportation systems which have been shaped by technology. (Alan 1963). Transportation importance and systems seeped and tightly knitted into every socioeconomic process and fabric of humanity. Different people, agencies in contemporary times get involved in transportation for various reasons and accruable benefits from the system, making transport sector of an economy one of the largest employer of labor and generator of public revenue.

Transportation is either provided by self or by a second party in response to the socio-economic needs of the user. The nature of emerging urban forms and settlement patterns gave rise to a situation where large number of people with unequal resources needs to go to the same place at the same time for both related and unrelated purposes. The provision of transportation cannot be unlimitedly open, the need for transportation cannot be handled either by public or private sectors of the economy in exclusion of the other. The need for service standardization and to avoid a dod-eat-dog transportation system which while exhilarating to the winners cannot serve the interest of the masses and user requirement giving rise to the government as public choice institute to step in as a transportation regulator (Alan 1963)

In developing countries with mixed economy such as Nigeria goods and services are jointly provided by the public and private institutes. The public concentrates more on service provision and the private on both goods and services. Besides providing the legislative frame for transportation systems and public transportation infrastructure the government provides transportation modes to users via vehicles that run in and outside cities and towns. I Nigeria this kind of transportation is provided in the state and federal level of government.

Public transport provision is therefore the provision of transport services for an area by the government and agents of public choice. It includes the provision of vehicles for the transportation of the masses that cannot afford to privately provide transportation services to meet their needs, and the management of such schemes so as to improve transportation as a part of socio-economic development.

Transportation planning has evolved beyond the practice of simply predicting transport demands and accommodating them which in fact was the standard for 20th century planning practice and the failure of this fact was seen in excessive dominance of environment polluting automobiles and enormous road construction. Contemporary public transport planning is the done in the context of the community involved via public-private participation as there is no one-size-fits-all model of transportation planning. contemporary transportation planning entails better management system and techniques including modern advancements in technology ( Jean-Paul 2017). The quality of planning is in the ability of the government wielding it as a development tool to plan and implement efficiently because planning reflects the abilities and weaknesses of the government especially in developing countries with mixed economy like that of Nigeria.

The benefits and socio-economic opportunities and privileges of public transport provision in umuahia are poorly exploited and neglected to the minimum especially for routes running within the city. This has caused a direct majpr dearth in the transportation system of the city. Transport provision is ignored by public agencies and different administrations, intra-city transport proviosion ius relegated to the private to provide.



Public transport provision is an important aspect of community development with abundant merits to both government and the public and even the biophysical environment. Its benefits and current situation are [poorly studied in respect to the Umuahia urban aspect, providing poor knowledge for policy makers about the possibilities and opportunities a functioning public transport system can hold.

The need therefore is to study to inform the right institutions so as to prompt due action to be taken in response and to increase public transport provision benefits.

Scholars mainly show their interest in the study of inter-city transit especially the Abia-line transport system despite the glaring call to study and expound intra-city public transport provision in Umuahia.


AIM: the aim of the research is a study of public transport provision in umuahia

OBJECTIVES: the following objectives are to be achieved in the course of the research study.

  1. To identify agencies of public transport provision in Umuahia urban
  2. To identify types of transport services that are publicly provided within Umuahia urban
  3. To identify the challenges public transport provision face in Umuahia
  4. *************************************************************


The research will provide rational answers to the following research questions.

  1. What public efforts are made to provide public transport within Umuahia?
  2. What agencies are used to publicly provide transport services in Umuahia?
  3. What are the challenges that reduce the efficacy of public efforts to provide transportation services in umuahia?
  4. What opportunities are available to improve and promote public transport provision in Umuahia


  1. There is no public transport provided in Umuahia urban for intra-urban transportation


The study covers the entire urban area of umuahia as a capital city of abia state from Isi-gate; the heart of the city to its peripheral towns like Ubalaka to study public transport provided in the area. It excludes transport services and their elements outside the area and privately provided transport is not provided  i.e. transport that is not provided by public choice.


The study looks at the neglected obscured facet of umuahia urban transportation aspect of public provision. To create a better light for public policies therefore it benefits the entire residents of umuahia. It is also beneficial to public policy makers and professionals and scholars related to urban development and Umuahia development.



Umuahia was established by British colonial administration in the early decades of the 20th century as a third class town under the British system of town classification. It was declared the second capital of the short-lived nation of Biafra o the 28th of September 1968. Umuahia was captured by Nigerian soldiers during the operation OAU in 1969 and recaptured by Biafra troops in July that same year. Formerly known as Ikwuano/Umuahia local government area until the Babangida led government divided it into Ikwuano LGA and Umuahia LGA in 1991. In 1996 the Umuahia LGA was further divided by the Achebe led government into Umuahia-north and Umuahia-south LGA.


          The studied area has a tropical rainforest vegetation and climate, being hot and wet most months of the year with abundant rainfall and a short dry season. Annual rainfall is 2158mm. The area has two major seasons, the rainy season and the dry season. Annual precipitation in the dry season is 155mm and temperature average 260C due to the hot and dry Sahara winds. The rainy season begins with the south Atlantic winds that brings the rain to its peak in July


The area of land called Umuahia is 385km2, the town lies between Aba on the south, okigwe on the north and Ikot-Ekpene on the east end. It GPS bearing is 5o 32N, 7O29E and 5.530N, 7.4830E. it the largest south-eastern city of Nigeria. Access is via the Port Harcourt-Enugu expressway, Umuahia-Ikot-Ekpene road, Umuahia-Umuire rod and the Ohafia road.



   Umuahia is inhabited by 642000 people. Major tribes is the Igbo tribe and its varying clans like umuopara, Ibeku, Olokoro, Ubakala, and Ohuhu clans. The Ibeku clan is the biggest clan, because of the city’s administrative, commercial and agricultural qualities the people from different tribes also reside in the town.

Umuahia is mainly known for its agricultural market dates as far as 1916. The name is coined from Oma-ahia literally meaning market center. In pre-colonial times the area served as central market placve preferred for its serenity and central [proximity to towns like Okigwe, Bendel, Aba Ngwa, Ohafia etc. by colonial administration and railway construction it became a collection point for food and cash crops. Today it is the capital of Abia state and location of many public and non-government social institutions like the war museum, Michael Okpara University of agriculture and national crop institute.


The quality of this research work is challenged by finance deficiency especially to travel and visit the study area frequently and get a more remote and detailed resident point of view of the transportation prospects of the area. The distance of the study area to the researcher limited also some possible visits. The time allowed for the research is also highly limited limiting the comprehensibility of the research. Lack of related literature remains the highest limitation and challenge to this researcher.