1.1 Background to the Study
The era of the teacher being a reservoir of knowledge is gone. The world is moving at a jet speed as a result of advances in technology. Importantly, technology entails information and communication which may be defined as the handling and processing of information (texts, images, graphs, instruction) for use by means of electronic and communication devices such as computer, cameras, telephones (Ozoji, 2003).
E-learning, often referred to as web-based or online learning, is currently a fast growing educational tool in the developed world. It involves all teaching and assessment approaches that use technology such as Wikis, Blogs, Podcasts and learning management systems such as computers, internet and web connectivity to enhance learning experiences and research works (Mahahusudhan, 2008). This new teaching and learning approach offers potential values to traditional teaching and learning approach due to its flexibility and accessibility of information to a great number of students at a time (Naqvi, 2007).
E-learning also provides easy access to any type of information required for academic purpose through the use of internet facilities such as World Wide Web (www) based technologies and other softwares. Nkanga (2007) indicated that e-learning is a computer supported collaborative learning process that deploys the technology of computer as its main platform for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and enables both students and teachers to generate, advance and share knowledge in a more common form. Apparently, e-learning is the only promising option for effective dissemination and collection of information which can successfully accommodate the ever-growing need for access to knowledge, equity and quality of education in Nigeria.
According to Izu (2013) e-learning is defined as a learning process created by interaction with digitally delivered content, network-based services and tutoring support. E-learning is any technologically mediated learning using computers whether from a distance or in face to face classroom setting (computer assisted learning), it is a shift from traditional education or training to ICT-based personalized, flexible, individual, self-organized, collaborative learning based on a community of learners, teachers, facilitators, experts.
1.2 Statement of Problem
One of the major problems faced by students in learning computer science is inability to remember what has been learnt. This problem is often caused by too much theoretical expression by the teachers while learners are passive listeners. Students memorize and regurgitate facts and concepts. These problems confronting the teaching and learning of computer science can be handled using slide presentations, audio-video presentation process and other interactive ICT software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment aimed at achieving certain instructional goals (Ezeliora, 1997; Onasanya, 2002).
Computer can be used to transform classroom instruction into a series of rich memorable experiences and thus, reduce boredom and forgetfulness in teaching subjects such as computer science. In recent years, the development of microcomputer in the process of teaching and learning has become widespread in educational institutions (Onasanya, 2002). Abimbade (1996) reported that the use of computer (1) increases the time learners devote to learning, (2) enhance the speed of available data and information, (3) provide immediate feed-back, (4) assist less qualified teachers and (5) increase teachers efficiently and effectiveness.
Several studies have been carried out on academic performance especially on conventional students, but not much on e-learning students within the Nigeria educational system. The need to sever this ground so as to extend the frontier of knowledge in order to help improve the unimpressive e-learners’ academic performance necessitates and serves as the motivating factor for undertaking the present piece of research so as to fill the existing important research gap. Therefore, this research seeks to examine the impact of e-learning on academic performance of senior secondary school students in computer science.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study will be conducted with the following objectives:
i. To investigate the relationship between e-learning and students’ academic performance.
ii. To determine the effect of audio-visual media on students’ academic achievement.
iii. To determine if the use of ICT enhances students’ learning in computer science as a school subject.
iv. To identify current challenges to students’ academic performance in computer science.
1.4 Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions:
1. What is the relationship between e-learning and students’ academic performance?
2. Does the use of audio-visual media have any effect on students’ academic achievement?
3. To what extent does the use of ICT enhance students’ learning outcomes in computer science?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested in the study:
1. H01: There is no significant relationship between e-learning and students’ academic performance.
H02: The use of audio-visual media has no effect on students’ academic achievement.