This study examined intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in Oredo Local Government Area, workers preference among the two types of motivation in the Oredo Local Government Area. A total of 60 questionnaires were distributed to workers of the Local Government. However, 54 questionnaires were duly filled and returned, this is about 90% response rate. The remaining 10% simple percentage and, chi-square, were used for data analysis. The result shows workers prefer extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation, because that is the key meeting their basic needs as individuals. It was recommended that the leadership of Oredo L.G.A should use extrinsic motivation to motivate its workers so that they can be better productive, and also workers should be paid as at when due so as to motivate them and increase their job performance and commitment. There should be better working condition so that workers can work better and become more productive.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
In today’s highly competitive and chaotic environment if organizations are to survive they must attract and retain people who are able and willing to perform and even go beyond what is required. Managing requires the creation and maintenance of an environment in which individuals work together in groups toward the accomplishment of common objectives. A manager cannot do the job without people. The creation of motivating factors in the organization, the safety of the role and the entire process of leading and motivating people must be upon the knowledge of motivation (Koontz et al. 1990).
Motivation is the will to act independently to achieve organizational goals. It is a psychological process that makes people work willingly toward goals. Motivating people towards performance has the ability to achieve a goal (Nwanchukwu, 1998).
Managers who understand how productivity is tied to motivation and other factors are able to initiate planning and controlling practices that can aid in the accomplishment of goals. Managers who find the key to their employees Strength/Desires can tap into their productive energy to enhance productivity to meet organizational goals.
Motivation has been identified by many scholars as the most effective means of enhancing the productivity of labour in an organization. Experience has shown that while employees are concerned with getting more pay and other attractive benefits of service, employers are striving for more cost effective strategies to increase profit and also employee’s productivity. Some employers believe in the use of carrot and stick approach, but this has been problematic because, it hinders the employees initiative to act independently without been pushed.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
What is intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation and how do they affect the performance of workers in Oredo Government Area. Do workers prefer extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation or the other way around?
How can the employer in Oredo Local Government Area use the preferred type of motivation to motivate employees in the local government?
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
- To determine workers preference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in Oredo Local Government Area.
- To ascertain why they prefer any of the type of motivation to the other.
- To determine the preference pattern according to age and sex.
- To determine the effect of intrinsic motivation on the performance of workers.
- To determine the effect of extrinsic motivation on the performance of workers.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
The research study is narrowed to Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State, and it will also cover preference and practices of the employers and workers in Oredo Local Government Area.
1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Since the research project is within Oredo Local Government Area, it won’t be possible to talk about broader areas outside the local area.
Been able to get sufficient relevant materials and literature may be another constrain.
Lack of reception by staffs of the local government council may be a limitation that may slow down the research process.
They may show low level of wiliness to fill the questionnaire shared to them because there is no financial gain attached to it.
Retrieving the forms from them may be a problem because of the delay that my occur in filling the questionnaire shared to them.
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
- Workers prefer extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation in Oredo Local Government Area.
- Workers productivity increases when extrinsic motivation is used to motivate them as against intrinsic motivation.
- Older people prefers extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation, while youngest people prefer both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
- Male workers prefer extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation, while female workers prefer intrinsic motivation to extrinsic motivation.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. MOTIVATION: Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviours. It is an internal and external factor that stimulate the desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or to make effort to attain a goal.
2. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside reward, such as money or grades.
3. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: Extrinsic motivation refers to the motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside. Reward such as money or grades, this reward provide satisfaction and pleasure in the individual.
4. PRODUCTIVITY: This refers to the relation between output generated from a system and the input provided to create the outputs.
5. INCENTIVES: This refers to motivational factors used by management to motivate employees e.g. bonus, salaries etc. These are things that encourages employees to do things (outside salaries and wages).
6. EARNINGS: This refers to something that is received because one has done something good or worked more than they usually worked previously.