This study assessed the impact of Poverty Reduction Programmes as a Development Strategy in Benin – City through the National Poverty Eradication Programme.
The study examined issues of poverty and underdevelopment in Nigeria, attributing it to lack of employment, high rate of illiteracy among the citizenry, poor infrastructure, inadequate access to micro credit facilities, mismanagement of public funds, instability of the governments and its policies.
The study also examined the efforts made by different governments in alleviating poverty. Poverty is multi-dimensional; it is characterized by lack of purchasing power, exposure to risk, malnutrition, high mortality rate, low life expectancy, insufficient access to social and economic services etc. poverty in Nigeria has reach an alarming level and is blamed on non-clear government social policies, across the world government plays a key role in poverty alleviation. In the case of Nigeria, the inability of successive governments to streamlined and harness the enormous potentials for improved services delivery in all the existing structures of poverty eradication has resulted into persistent poverty.
The study seeks to explore the extent to which public policies have affected the poverty alleviation programme in Benin-City with special emphasis on the role of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP).
- INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
Poverty is a social problem in which a country is face with cultural, social, political, economic and environmental deprivations. In other words, it is a state of involuntary deprivation to which a person, household, community or nation can be subjected. In recent times, scholars have pointed out that there are reinforcing vicious circles that keep families, regions and countries poor and unable to contribute to national growth (Perry et al, 2006; Okoye and Onyukwu, 2007). In developing countries, poverty level has been on the increase. In Nigeria, for example, the situation has worsened since the late 1990s and can be best described as “inflammable”. As Nnamadi (2003; 60) puts it, poverty in Nigeria has reached an alarming level and has been rising steadily not exponentially.
Aware of the grave consequences of poverty, successive Nigerian governments have designed and implemented numerous policies to tackle the scourge. However, every effort towards this direction has not yielded the expected results. Some believe that bad governance, corruption, low productivity, unemployment, debt-burden and conflicts are associated to failure of poverty eradication. Others attributed the high level of poverty to macro-economic distortion, globalization, high population growth rate and poor human resources development. It is generally believed that acute poverty can be reduced or eradicated through effective policy measure.
The problem of poverty in African is one that has over the years engaged the attention of the international community, governmental and non-governmental organizations including western and African scholars indeed. The issues of poverty and poverty reduction have been a focus of numerous researchers’ discussion, its debates and implementations of the various programmes. In discussing any issue that relates to poverty, one must cast back his mind to the days of the early scholars who contributed immensely on the topic (poverty and poverty alleviation).
According to Anikpo (1995), poverty is the history process of individuals or groups being forcefully eliminated from control of the decision-making machinery that determines the production and distribution of resource in a society. He further explains that poverty manifest in various forms, such as hunger, lack of food, good drinking water, clothes, shelters, good health, poor education and distribution of resources coupled with monopoly of the machinery of decision-making through coercive state apparatus.
The concept of poverty and material deprivation is a critical one in contemporary social discussions. Social sciences literature is replete with attempt by economics and other social scientists to conceptualize the phenomenon. Poverty has economic, social and political ramifications. The poor are materially deprived, socially alienated and politically excommunicated. Basically, poverty has been conceptualized in the following ways;
- Lack of access to basic needs/goods and
- Lack of or impaired access to productive resources.
Poverty as lack of access to basic needs/goods is essentially economic or consumption oriented. Thus the poor are conceived as those individuals or households in a particular society, incapable or purchasing a specified basket of basic goods and services. Basic goods as use here include food, shelter, water, health care, access to productive resources including education, working skill and tools, political and civil rights to participate in decisions concerning socio-economic conditions (Ajakaiye and Adeyeye 2001 in Gbosi, 2004). It is generally agreed that in conceptualizing poverty, low income or low consumption is its symptom.
The level of poverty in Nigeria since the implementation of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in the 1980s has tremendously increased (UNDP Nigeria, 1998, FOS, 1999, World Bank, 1999).
The poverty profile in Nigeria showed that the incidence of poverty increased from 28.1% in 1980 to 43.6% in 1985, but declined to 42.7% in 1992 and rose again to 65.6% in 1996 (FOS 1999). Since 1990, the country has been classified as a poor nation. The UNDP Human Development indices (HD) for 2001 ranked Nigeria the 142nd with HDI of 0.40 among the poorest countries.
From 1980-1996, the population of poor Nigerians increased four folds in absolute terms. The percentage of the core poor increased from 62% in 1980 to 93% in 1996,whereas the moderately poor only rose from 28.9% in 1992 to 36.3% in 1996 (FOS, 1999). The analysis of the depth and severity of poverty in Nigeria showed that rural areas were the most affected. Several reasons accounted for the situation viz;
- The large concentration of the populace in the rural areas.
- Many years of neglect of the rural areas in terms of infrastructural development and lack of information on the way government is being run.
The CBN/World Bank study on poverty Assessment and Alleviation in Nigeria (1999) attested to the fact that the living and environmental conditions of those living in the rural areas have worsened. Urban poverty is also on the increase in the country. This has been attributed to the under provision of facilities and amenities which are already inadequate to match the growing demand of the urban populace as well as the rural-urban movement which has caused serious pressure on the existing infrastructural facilities.
Concernabout this problems as well as efforts made to eradicate or at least reduce it cannot be said to be new. While major reductions in poverty level have been made in developed countries, developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, have been battling with poverty, from one poverty alleviation porgramme to anothereradication programme, but all to no avail.
The concern over increasing poverty levels in Nigeria and the need for its eradication as a means of improving the standard of living of the people has led to the conceptualization and implementation of various targeted or non-targeted poverty eradication and alleviation programmes. Both the Nigeria government and donor agencies have been active in efforts in analyzing and finding solutions to the increase of poverty level. Government programmes and agencies designed to impact on poverty include:
- The Directorate of food, roads and rural infrastructure (D.F.F.R.I).
- The National Directorate of Employment (NDE).
- The establishment of the peoples Banks of Nigeria in 1989.
- The Better Life Programme (BLP).
- The Family Support Programme (FSP).
- The Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP).
- National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA).
- Operation Feed the Nation (OFN).
- National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).
- Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP).
- The Nomadic and Adult Education Programme .
And most recently, with the return of democracy on May 29, 1999, the Federal Government embarked on poverty reduction programme specifically, the government put up the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in the year 2000 which took off in 2001. It was aimed at eradicating absolute poverty and it consist of four schemes, namely;
- Youth Empowerment Scheme, Rural Infrastructures and Development Scheme.
- Social Welfare Services Scheme.
- Rural Resources Development and
- Conservation Scheme.
To implement these programmes, the government placed emphasis on complementation, collaboration and coordination between the various tiers of government on one hand and between government, Donor/Agencies, non-governmental organization and Local Communities. A multi-agency implementation structure with coordination, monitoring and evaluating organs was introduced in order to ensure cost effective delivery target with optimal social benefit. NAPEP is being implemented in Nigeria till date. The questions arising from the implementation of NAPEP include:
- Is poverty eradicating programme appropriate for Nigeria?
- How has government concept of NAPEP affected its success?
- How has NAPEP’s activities impacted on poverty reduction as a boost to economic development?
In spite of all the laudable efforts at addressing poverty, the problem still persist in Nigeria.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Today, poverty is widely addressed as a global problem. Poverty affects over four billion people. It is important to know that most of the poor people live in the developing world of Africa, Asia and Latin American (Gbosi, 2004). On the average 45-50 percent of Sub-Saharan Africans live below the poverty line.
Poverty is indeed a global problem. To this effect, the United Nations declared 1996 the International year of eradication of poverty and 1997-2006 a decade of poverty eradication. In pursuance of this target, government in both developed and developing countries became increasingly aware of the poverty problem and several development efforts to alleviate poverty and therefore have been embarked upon Worldwide. There is a high incidence of poverty in Nigeria today; especially among the unemployed, the uneducated women and rural dwellers (Gbosi, 2004). In 1980, the poverty level was only 28.1% but by 1996, it had jumped to 66.6%. Having been mindful of the implications to the economy, the government needs to make concerted efforts in order to reduce poverty in the country. This is because a high incidence of poverty is not good for the health of a developing country like Nigeria. A review of the economic history of Nigeria shows that successive governments have expressed concern on the need to alleviate poverty in the country.
Unfortunately, the issues of poverty eradication has proved to be the most difficult challenge facing the less developed countries (Nigeria inclusive) where majority of the people live in absolute poverty.However, the government has continued to respond in order to ameliorate the worsening conditions of the poor by shifting public expenditure towards poverty eradication. Different poverty eradication programmes and projects to cushion the effects of poverty have been initiated over the years. Poverty eradication was seen as a means through which the government could revamp the battered economy and rebuild self-esteem in majority of Nigerians.
Consequently, on assumption of office in 1999, president Obasanjo indicated that the poverty situation in which over 60% of Nigerians live below the poverty line requires concerted efforts to prevent it from becoming worse. In this vein, the government in addition to previous efforts (aimed at poverty eradication) introduced a number of programmes and measures aimed at tackling poverty. These include:
- The launching of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) which has poverty reduction as one of the four primary goals (NEEDS documents, 2004).
- The launching of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme.
- The Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP).
- The Constitution of the Ahmed Joda Panel in 1999.
- Ango Abdullahi Committee in 2000 (Obadan, 2001).
The immediate concern of the panel or committee was the streamlining and rationalization of existing poverty alleviation institutions and the co-ordination, implementation and monitoring of relevant schemes.
These resulted in the introduction (in early 2001) of the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in Nigeria. Data has it that over N25 billion from 2001 till date have been received by NAPEP for the fight against poverty in Nigeria. Unfortunately, poverty level seems to be unresponsive to these windfall of resources addressed for the fight. In spite of this huge resources devoted to NAPEP, deterioration in fiscal discipline, corruption and inconsistent policies which had undermined past efforts still makes poverty eradication in Nigeria a paradox. The rate of unemployment has continued to rise and the poverty situation has exacerbated.
In a reaction to an allegation of mismanagement of funds meant for the war against poverty in Nigeria, by the Nigeria senate, NAPEP said that it has generated funds from other sources and expended N21.725 billion on the programme from 2001 to 2008. The National Coordinator of the programme and special Assistant to the President, Dr. Magnus Kpakol explained that since inception in 2001, the programme has received N11.8 billion as budgetary allocation, N4 billion for procurement of Keke NAPEP, N10 billion from state governments and Commercial Banks for multi-partnership programme and N8.2 billion from the Millennium Development Goal (MDG),this totals N34 billion. However, the NAPEP boss explained that about N21.7 billion has been spend so far. (Daily Champion, Wednesday, February 18, 2009 page 7). In a motion titled “Dismal Performance of the National Poverty Eradication Programme” Senator Kure observed that poverty have continued to be on the increase with about 70% of the Nation’s population currently living below poverty level. He lamented that since its establishment in 2001, the agency have not efficiently impacted on the lives of Nigerians despite huge resources committed through budgetary allocations and Millennium Development Goal (MDG) fund.
As a matter of fact, there is need to take careful look at the issues of poverty in Nigeria, coming against the background of continuing efforts on the part of the government to address it, if close to N30 billion has been gathered for poverty eradication in 8 years and these resources are utilized efficiently, there should have been significant improvements in the living standards of the generality of the people and the poverty level should ordinarily be reduced.
However, in order to pre-empty the outcome of this study, this is aimed at finding out how the activities of NAPEP has impacted negatively or positively on Economic Development and the generality of the lives of Nigerians from 2001 till date.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Does NAPEP skill development programme lead to increased employment?
- Does the product of NAPEP skill development programme benefit from gainful self-employment?
- Does NAPEP skill development programme attract many participants?
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to examine the role of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in Benin City. The conclusion derived shall be used to generalize on its impact on the whole country.
The specific objectives include:
- To determine if NAPEP skill development programme lead to increase employment.
- To determine if the product of NAPEP skill programme benefit from gainful employment.
- To determine if NAPEP skill development programme attract many participants.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To the masses, this research work intends to publicize the activities and programmes of NAPEP, and how it has affected the well being of Nigerians.
To the government and policy-makers, it identifies and reveals the successes and failures, challenges and prospects of NAPEP and affords them the opportunity of designing and implementing a holistic approach, procedures and strategies and better ways of tackling this hydra-headed menace called “poverty”.
Also to the students and fellow researchers, it reveals the operations and the impact of NAPEP on the people, while it serves as an addition to the stock of knowledge; it also serves as a basis for further research.
- THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The essence of the theoretical framework is to review some already propounded theories concerning poverty reduction and economic development. There are many relative theories of poverty as considered below:
POVERTY AS INEQUALITY: Some scholars argued that some people have less than others. The inequality of five fingers in a human hand is often used as an analogy to defined poor and the rich. It could be machineries to interpret the symmetrical arrangement of the human fingers as an analogy to the antagonistic and symmetrical relationship between the poor and the rich.
THE DIVINE THEORY: The theory seems to be a design accredited to God’s nature. That some people are naturally stronger, more talented is an inevitable natural which no one can do anything about. They profess that the poor are supposed to accept their fate with humility, while the rich are entitled to their wealth and only help the poor through arms giving and other charitable acts.
CULTURE OF POVERTY: Lewis (1961) the concept, they become apathetic, violent and lack self-control which reinforce with position. In 1972, Thomas and Anderson explained culture of poverty as pathological trained in capability by which the poor are used to acquire the value of competitive society.
SUBJECTIVE POVERTY: This refers to whether or not individuals or groups feel they are poor. Subjective poverty is closely related to relative poverty since those who are defined as poor in terms of the standard; the day will probably see and feel them to be poor. People act in terms of the way they perceive and define themselves.
RELATIVE POVERTY: This is measured in terms of judgment by members of a particular society of what is considered a reasonable and acceptable standard of living and style of life according to the correction of life, according to the correction of day. The concept of relative poverty also poses problems for the comparison of the poor in the same society over time and between societies. For example, a relative concept of poverty prevents a comparison of the poor in present day England and third world countries in Africa, Asia and South America.
EQUILIBRIUM OF POVERTY: The concept of poverty depicts a situation in which the poverty of a country denies its people the means of improvements.
POVERTY LINE: This is a measure of standard of living which separates the poor from the rich. Measures, which include income, expenditure status as well as intangible criteria such as freedom, the right to vote, gender equality etc.
SHAPES AND DIMENSION OF POVERTY: Poverty among other things is related to location, urban, rural, north or south and the level of household. Poverty reflects regional and structural variations across rural and urban areas, gender differentiations and geographical settings. The impact is uniform and varies only in levels. It has indirect and direct effects on people. A direct effect can be seen in the virtual collapse of basic infrastructure like, access to water and sanitation, nutrition, health and education and services. Perhaps due to poverty complexity, like corrosive effect on humility, many journals, articles and books have tackled the issues of poverty from the direct effect angles. Poverty destroys aspiration, hope and happiness.Indirectly, it affects positive relations with subordinates, self-esteem and sense of personal competence. It also destroys ones dispositions to participating in community affair, inter-personal trust and self-satisfaction.
To understand their concept, we may draw homely an example of how the poor do not have enough to eat, being underfed, his health may be poor, being physically poor, his working capability is low, which means that he is poor and will not have enough to eat. In brief, a man is poor because he is poor. The concept of poverty is very dear, many scholars see poverty, particularly which has been a major obstacle impending the development of Nigeria.
Galbraith (1958) classified modern poverty into two categories, namely; case poverty and insular poverty.
CASE POVERTY: Is the kind of poverty seen in many communities, rural and urban. It manifests in poor family with junks filled yard and dirty children playing in dirty environment. Other sign posts peculiar to the individual afflicted by poverty are mental deficiency, bad health, inability to adapt to the discipline of modern economic life, excessive procreation or perhaps combination of several of those handicaps.
INSULAR POVERTY: This kind of poverty can manifest itself as island. In this imaginary inland, everybody is poor. Galbraith (1958) noted that is not easy to explain insular poverty individually in adequacy because the environment in which the people found themselves may have made them poor or have frustrated them. Social deprivations, low per-capital income, over-crowded accommodation, engagement in informal business, rural poverty characterized by poor conditions of living.
Zupi (2007:3) went on to analyze the fact that poverty has been seen as a dynamic process rather than a static phenomenon, one that captures the various forms of deprivation in well-being. It implies an observable disadvantage in relation to the local community or the wider society or nation to which a deprived individual, family, household or group belongs. The concept of poverty is also linked to distribution in terms of economic distance that is inequality. However, he argued that distribution alone cannot identify the ability to achieve a decent level of living.
After decades of social policies based on the inclusion of the poor, poverty is again being treated as a problem of marginalization. As Procacci (2007:5) put it, marginalization put poverty further apart from the whole of society. As far as poverty is concerned with fundamental right to a minimum of resources for not starving is not enough for organizing a social response to its increase. Social exclusion confirms a dual society and appears more as a symptom of a social fracture than as a solution against it.
EMPLOYMENT SITUATION CONSTRAINTS THEORY OF POVERTY:the profounder of the theory was Liebow (1967). He argued that, the poor are constrained by the fact of their situation, by low income, unemployment and the like, to act the way they do. He further argued that, the poor would readily change their behavior in response to new set of circumstances if one of the constraints of poverty were removed. He also argued that one is probably more fruitful to think lower class family reacting in various ways to the fact of their position and to relative isolation rather than the imperatives of lower class culture.
The poor people share the values of a society as a whole. The only differences is that they are unable to translate many of these values into reality and once the constraints of poverty are removed, the poor will have no difficulties adopting mainstream behavioural patterns and seizing available opportunities.
DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY:Given the above definitions, it is appropriate to note that poverty assumes political, social and economic dimensions.The social dimension of poverty includes lack of access to health care etc. The political dimension of poverty exist where civil right are divided and political power rest in the hands of few people; while the economic dimension of poverty is broader than lack of finance, it includes lack of employment opportunity and even distribution of resources to the factors beyond their control.
The World Bank study of Nigeria’s poverty shows that there are differences between regions in the concentration of poor and the rich in the society. According to the study, poverty varies from the North to the South as earlier mentioned above, with more concentration of the poor in the North, agro-climate zone (World Bank, August, 1996). However, generally, people of low-incomes live in the rural agricultural and non-industrial society.
Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), now Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) in 1998 emphasized the level of poverty by the aggregate low quality of life of Nigerians as follows:
- Only 40% of the populationhas access to good and potable drinking water.
- About 85% of Nigeria’spopulation lives in the rural areas.
- Most Nigerians consume less than one-third of the minimum requirement of protein and vitamins.
- Above 75% of Nigerians have no access to primary health care.
- Most people in Nigeria especially rural people have families without jobs.
- The Gross National Product (GNP) per capital for Nigeria by 1996 was only 260 compared to 390 for Ghana and 400 for Zambia and also for Indonesia.
Sen. (1992) in his theory of poverty implies the idea that poverty is not a natural phenomenon within a larger frame of inequality problems rather it can be eliminated if people are enabled to become autonomous from needs. No real development is possible if basic needs are unmet and larger strata of the population are kept in a condition of dependency. Rejecting the idea of poverty as a natural object, and its inevitability in human societies helps to orient our questioning towards concrete social practices treating poverty, their transformations and their effects.
As Manning (2007:2) observed, rapid and sustained poverty reduction requires “pro-poor growth”, that is a pace and pattern of growth that enhances ability of poor women and men to participate and contribute to and benefit from growth. In essence, growth should be broad-based across sectors and regions and inclusive of the large part of the workforce that poor men and women make up. Also, policies for sustaining growth, such as those aiming at strengthening institutional capacity, promoting democratic and effective governance should increase poor people’s incentives, opportunities and capabilities for employment so they can participate in and benefit from growth.
The UNDP summarizes these conceptions and described the extent of poverty around the world as pervasive. Today, more than one billion, one person in five live in abject poverty (choices: The Human Development Magazine; March, 2003).
Globally, infrastructure gap is currently huge. Evidence shows that more than one billion people have no access to roads, 1.2 billion do not have safe drinking water, 2.3 billion lack reliable energy, 2.4 billion have no sanitation facilities and 4 billion without modern communication services. In the absence of accessible transport, energy and water, the poor pay heavily in time, money and health (Manning, 2007). In many developing countries notably in Sub-Saharan African, growth has been low and so provides few benefits for the poor to reap. The governments of these countries are currently unable to create sufficient formal jobs to absorb the increase in the non-agricultural workforce.
Employment status is another indicator of poverty reduced substantially. The percentage of extreme poor among agriculturalist reduced from 28% in 1992 to 16.4% in 1998, while for service work’s families, it is increased from 4% to 10.7% (Federal Office of Statistics, 1998).
Globalization and World Trade Order (WTO) liberalization policy have contributed to the growth and increase of poverty rate in Nigeria. This was noted as a modern way of colonialism worsening the poverty situation of the Third World Countries. Some individuals have suggested that Nigeria should boycott the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) agreement because the treaty leads to dumping of foreign goods in the country. It also leads to the closure of our local goods industries. Others argued that the quality of Nigeria’s goods would not complete effectively in the global market (vanguard 5, 2002, and Guardian April 2, 2002). The nation’s oil and import dependent nature leads to unemployment and increment in the poverty level of the people.
Discrimination, race and poverty closely related. They affect people’s ability to secure employment and earn a living.
Reports shows that HIV/AIDS also contribute to the poverty prevalence of many Africa countries, for instance, the United Nations HIV/AIDS Report (1999) shows that Nigeria had 5.8% HIV prevalence rate and ranked fourth worst affected countries in 1999 based on the number of HIV infections. This is because most of the going ladies in Nigeria were forced by the economic condition to engage in prostitution, just to earn a living.
Most eligible Nigerians are tax avoiders, evaders and defaulters. As such funds accruing from taxations are inadequate to cushion the effect of poverty in Nigeria. Also, mismanagement from politicians and top government functionaries discourages tax payers from performing their civic responsibilities and increases the poverty level. This mismanagement includes illegal and frequent transfer of money abroad, over-invoicing of imports, family allocation of resource, embezzlement, inflation of contracts etc.
DEVELOPMENT: In the ordinary parlance development means growth change or planned growth, such as social, political and economic development or in a hyphenated word socio-political economic development.
Riggs (1976) defines development as a process of increasing autonomy (discretion) of the social system made possible using levels of diffraction. Tinbergan (1958) in his discretion on the design of development suggested that the development policy should include the following;
- The creation of the general condition of development.
- Awareness of development potentialities and advantages.
- Basic government instruments.
- Measure to facilitate and stimulate private activity.
- Development of policy under varying circumstances.
Before now, the concept of development has been a measure of per capital income growth. Now growth could be sectorial or even peripheral. In a wider sense, development should consist of higher production, better distribution and greater social justice. The basic purpose of development should be to harness and mobilize human development. It could be achieved through helping the poor, the marginalized and the Nigerian population by providing them with enhanced opportunities and access to resources for their productive self-employment, income generation and better life, while strengthening the assets base and livelihood of the economically challenged population. By implication, we build the target communities into active economically self-sufficient units.
Ayodele (1996) conceives development as a continuous process of generating and allocating resources and economic satisfaction effectively.
Finally, in applying this approach in the evaluation of the role of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) on economic development, this study looks at the programme of the agencies over the years and their impact on the socio-political and economic development of our country, Nigeria, using Benin City as a case study. It is in these views that careful study of the role of (NAPEP) will help us ascertain whether the programme has been fruitful or a waste of our scare resources.
- METHOD OF STUDY
A survey is a data collection technique in which information is gathered from individuals known as respondents by having their responds to questions.
POPULATION: The population of this study will be concentrated on the people who benefit from the product of NAPEP in Benin City.
SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size of the research study will be a total of 100 persons. They will be selected from the population of study using the stratified sampling techniques. Sample size means the selected persons that will be issued questionnaires.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUES: The sampling technique adopted for the research is stratified sampling techniques which involves the selection of respondent and without a pre-information or pre-knowledge of their being selected.
INSTRUMENTATION:The use of close-ended questions. A list of answers is provided for the respondent to select answer from a list of answer.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The main aim that this study is trying to achieve is to know the various ways that poverty can be tackled and eradicated from Benin-City. Great emphasis will be laid on Benin City most especially in the course of this study. The misconception on how poverty can be alienated has caused a lot of commotion in time past.