Lagos city has abundant navigable inland waterways which if fully harnessed would help minimize road traffic congestion, pollution and provide low cost means of long distance travel within the city. This study examines the socio-economic effects of inland water transportation services with emphasis on CMS Apapa route Lagos. Primary data were obtained using structured questionnaires. While, secondary data were sourced from relevant government and private agencies. Inland waterways are made up of navigable rivers, lakes, creeks, lagoons and canals. The movement of goods and services along inland waterways is one of the oldest means of transporting goods and services from one point to another. The researcher adopt the survey research design for the study. The population of the study comprises of 300 staff of Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency and the staff of inland water transport service in CMS. The data obtain were analyzed using the graphical and percentage method with the help of SPSS version 21. The study conclude that despite the poor infrastructure, water transport played an important role by enhancing mobility in the area.
- Background of the study
Inland waterways are made up of navigable rivers, lakes, creeks, lagoons and canals (Aderemo and Mogaji 2010). The movement of goods and services along inland waterways is one of the oldest means of transporting goods and services from one point to another (Fellinda, 2016). This was largely due to the fact that inland water transportation offers the most economical, energy efficient and environmentally friendly means of transporting all types of cargoes from place to place (Ojile, 2016).It also offered safe and cheaper transportation in areas with watercourses. This facilitates commerce, promote wealth creation, poverty alleviation and create job opportunities for the youths within such regions. The building industry also generate employment through active engagement of the youths in welding and fabrication process (Gray, 2014). According to Owena (2013), Nigeria has the second longest length of waterways in Africa with a total of 8,600 kilometres. The two longest rivers in Nigeria; River Niger and River Benue run into each other at Lokoja and flows into the Atlantic Ocean. The coastal region extends from Badagry region through Warri to Calabar (Ezenwaji, 2010). It was noted that inland waterways transverses 20 out of the 36 states within the country, and the areas adjacent the navigable rivers represented the nation‟s most important agricultural and mining regions. According to Abubakar (2012), the direct impact of inland water transportation for instance was highlighted at the Delta Areas of Southern Nigeria. He noted that inland water transportation was very vital in the development of the region. The social needs for maritime transport has to do with how it helps in solving human problems, especially with regard to operational industry modalities, recreational transformational Linkages and business transactional exchanges, as well as the movement of goods and services across African Continental borders within the operational confines of the law that has to do with fraudulent sharp practices, industry negative vices syndrome narratives and operational abuses that are second to none as the case may be, of which Nigeria cannot be insulated from it. This is because; the industry lacks the fundamental intellectual and knowledge-based skills of needed workforce that can obviously matching the ever-increasing demanding tasks of the industry at Large.
Inland waterways are made up of navigable rivers, lakes, creeks, lagoons and canals. The movement of goods and services along inland waterways is one of the oldest means of transporting goods and services from one point to another. This was largely since inland water transportation offers the most economical, energy efficient and environmentally friendly means of transporting all types of cargoes from place to place. It also offered safe and cheaper transportation in areas with watercourses. However, in the recent years, increasing congestion on urban roads has directed attention to the development of other more sustainable forms of transportation. In addition, the fact that efficient transportation systems serve as catalyst for sound land use planning is increasingly being recognised. Both of these reasons have provided an opportunity for water transport to play more significant role in urban mobility schemes in many parts of the world (International Association of Public Transport, 2013). Water transport provides the opportunity for improving urban transportation by helping to provide faster (hardly experienced congestion), more efficient and better integrated transport services for the urban area (Hoyle, 2013). Nigeria has about 8,600 kilometers of inland waterways and an extensive area of coastland of over 800 kilometres (Ndikom, 2013). Up to early 1960s, inland waterways provided important routes for access from the coast to the hinterland and accounted for more than 30% of the total produce transported in the country. However, by the late 1960s the significance of this important means of transportation had declined. At present only about 3,000 kilometres of the country’s inland waterways is being harnessed (Badejo, 2011). Although, water transport is known to be comparatively cheaper and most efficient for riverine communities, this mode of transport is currently highly neglected and undervalued in the country (Ndikom, 2013; Adejare et al., 2017).
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Transport is an elementary economic activity. An effective freight transport machinery is a primary condition for growth and development survival of the economy. To establish a position of a gateways of Nigeria with high quality hinter land connections a few conditions has to be fulfilled based on awareness that nobody would consider treating such critical important sector as good transport without the greatest care and consideration, shipping, short sea, inland waterways, coastal traffic are all sub-section deserving great attention research effort. Inland waterways transportation is one of the oldest economic and environmental sustainable modes of transportation for passengers and cargo; in some areas it is the only means of mobility and access to basic services. The sector encompasses vessels ranging from simple non-motorized boats to highly automated pushers, operating on waterways ranging from small tributaries to major rivers. Inland waterways play a vital role in economic development, especially in remote areas while the potentials opportunities for this sector depends considerably on the specific regional context such as geographical conditions, level of road development and socio-economic conditions. Inland waterways include all rivers, lakes, inland channels, canals deep enough for water bone traffic and protected tidal waters. The welfare of the remote rural areas of the inhabitants who are usually among the lowest of low income groups in the region. In the absence of river and other forms of inland waterways transport, many remote underprivileged communities would be inaccessible or too costly to service by other means. It is in view of this that the researcher intend to investigate the socio-economic effects of inland water transportation service in Lagos state with emphasis on CMS.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study has one main objective which is sub-divided into general and specific objective. The main objective is to examine the socio-economic effect of inland water transportation services. The specific objectives are;
- To examine the socio-economic effect of inland water transportation service in CMS Apapa route
- To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between inland water transportation service and economic growth
- To examine the impact of inland water transportation on the development of transport system in CMS Apapa route
- To proffer suggested solution to the identified problem
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
- Is there any socio-economic effect of inland water transportation service in CMS Apapa route?
- Is there any significant relationship between inland water transportation service and economic growth?
- Does inland water transportation have any impact on the development of transport system in CMS Apapa route?
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
H0: There is no significant relationship between inland water transportation service and economic growth
H1: There is a significant relationship between inland water transportation service and economic growth
H0: Inland water transportation service does not have any socio-economic effect on CMS Apapa route
H0: Inland water transportation service does have a socio-economic effect on CMS Apapa route
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency as the findings of the study will help them in formulating policies that will ensure safety of inland water transport services in the study area. The study will also be of great importance to the management of the federal ministry of transport as the study seek to explore the potentials of inland water transport system in the study area. The study will also be of importance to student of marine transport as the findings of the study will serve as a reference point to further studies in a similar topic, finally, the study will be of great importance to students, teachers, academia’s and the general public as the findings of the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and will also contribute to the body of knowledge.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the socio-economic effect of inland waters transportation services with emphasis on CMS Apapa route of Lagos state. But in the course of the study, there are some factors that limit the scope of the study;
(a) Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b) Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c) Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a nation’s internal waters include waters on the side of the baseline of a nation’s territorial waters that is facing toward the land, except in archipelagic states
Transportation Services means those activities designed to assist a person to travel from one place to another to obtain services or carry out life’s activities
Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances. Methods of transportation fall into three categories.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.