One of the major macroeconomic variables that compliment bank performance is availability of capital. Economic theories show that inadequate capital contributes to bank failures and retards economic growth. This study however, examined the impact of bank recapitalization of banking industry on economic growth of Nigeria. It is the aim of this research work to examine the past bank failures as a result of inadequate capital and how recapitalization exercise in the banking industry in Nigeria has increased the minimum paid-up capital and increased the banks’ asset qualities. This research work is carried out to achieve some objectives among which are: to examine the impact liquidity ratio on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post capitalization 2005, to determine the impact of cash reserve ratios on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post capitalization 2005, to examine the impact of money supply on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post capitalization 2005, to examine the impact of loan-to-deposit ratio on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post capitalization in 2005. The methodology adopted for this work was based on the use of tables and charts, which established structured relationship between the variables studied. The data collected were only from secondary data and variable specification used were dependent and independent variable: while GDP was used as dependent variables, money supply, loan-to- deposit ratio and cash reserve ratio are independent variable. The findings indicate that liquidity ratio, cash reserve ratio have no positive and significant impact on economic growth of Nigeria as opposed to money supply to GDP and loan to deposit of commercial bank that have positive but non-significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria. It is, however, recommended that government should make policies that are less stringent and more favourable for the operators to have room to operate more freely.
1.1 Background of the study
Globally, the activities of banks reflect their unique roles as the engine of growth in any economy. The role which comes from both banks and non-banks financial intermediaries and the regulatory framework in stimulating economic growth is widely recognized especially in developmental economics. Uboh (2005) set the pace for the landslide of other works on the interdependent and the relationship between banks and economic growth.
Stressing further, the pioneering work of Guiley and Shaw (1956) on the relationship between real and financial developments shows that financial intermediaries, monetization and capital formation determine the path and pace of economic growth and development of any country. Nevertheless these pivotal roles have not been highly noticeable in Nigeria. The scenario arises as a result of poor performances of Nigeria commercial banks. According to Soludo (2004), “The Nigeria banking system today is fragile and marginal. The system faces enormous challenges which if not addressed urgently could snowball into a crisis in the near future”. Soludo identified the problems of the banks, especially those seen as feeble, as persistent liquidity, unprofitable operations and poor asset base.
Imala (2005) posited that the objectives of banking system are to ensure pure stability and facilitate sustainable rapid economic development. Regrettably, these objectives have remained largely unattained in Nigeria as a result of some deficiencies in the banking system. This phenomenon has necessitated continuous financial sector reforms globally. In 1988, an international agreement among the banking authorities known as Basle agreement was reached. The main objective of this was to apply a common set of rules for capital adequacy in order to minimize the risk of bank failures. In compliance with the Basle agreement, the governor of Central Bank of Nigeria Professor Charles Soludo announced on July 6, 2004 that the banking sector should increase their capital base with about 100% (from initial capital base of _2 million to a whopping _25 billion). The policy directives of this initiative according to the C.B.N Governor are ita alia.
(i) To strengthen the commercial banks thereby intensifying the growth of the economy.
(ii) To encourage competition locally and internationally in conformity with the new trend of globalization.
The kernel of this argument is that with this new policy of recapitalization, banks that cannot meet the required amount will have to merge with bigger or stronger ones. Following the implementation of the policy, an unprecedented process of recapitalization has taken place in Nigerian sector shrinking the number of commercial banks from 89-25 banks. No other event is more challenging than this recapitalization policy in the history of Nigeria banking. Prior to the reformation, the state of Nigeria banking sector was very weak. It’s fragile and marginal being plagued by persistent liquidity, unprofitable operations, poor asset base and intermittent failures. It was expected that the reform should promote efficiency, better banking performance, operational stability, profitability and reduce bank failures.
According to Imala (2005), the current structure of the banking system has promoted tendencies towards banking effectiveness and efficiency particularly at the retail level.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The Nigerian banking system has undergone remarkable changes over the years, in terms of the number of institutions, ownership structure, as well as depth and breadth of operations. These changes have been influenced largely by the challenges posed by deregulation of the financial sector, globalization of operations, technological innovations and adoption of supervisory and prudential requirements that conform to international standards. As at the end of June 2004, there were 89 deposit banks operating in the country, comprising institutions of various sizes and degrees of soundness. Structurally, the sector is highly concentrated, as the ten largest banks account for about 50 percent of the industry’s total assets/liabilities. Most banks in Nigeria have a capitalisation of less than $10 million. Even the largest bank in Nigeria has a capital base of about US $240 million compared to US $526 million for the smallest bank in Malaysia. The small size of most of our banks, each with expensive headquarters, separate investment in software and hardware, heavy fixed costs and operating expenses, and with several branches in few commercial centres – lead to very high average cost for the industry. This in turn has implications for the cost of intermediation, the spread between deposit and lending rates, and puts undue pressures on banks to engage in sharp practices as means of survival.
Inspite of the efforts pulled together by the regulatory authorities to revitalize the institution, Nigerian banking sector continued to witness pockets of distress that led to the consolidation reform agenda. Moreover, while copious studies and reports have provided results for pre and post consolidation exercise in Nigeria, comparatively, little has been done to provide a comprehensive assessment on how the consolidation, merger and acquisition would impact on bank services. It is therefore, necessary to undertake a critical study of how the impact of recapitalization exercise by the Central Bank of Nigeria towards enhancing the performances of commercial banks in Nigeria can lift the economic standards of this country.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The set objective of this study is as follows:
(i) To examine the impact of liquidity ratios on economic growth in Nigeria, pre and post capitalization exercise in 2005
(ii) To determine the impact of cash reserve ratios on economic growth in Nigeria, pre and post capitalization exercise in 2005
(iii) To examine the impact of money supply on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post consolidation in 2005
(iv) To examine the impact of loan-to-deposit ratio on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post consolidation in 2005
1.4 Research questions
This following research questions will emanate in this study. These are:
(i) To what extent do liquidity ratios pre and post consolidation have positive and significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria.
(ii) How far does cash reserve ratios of commercial banks pre and post have positive and significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria
(iii) To what extent does money supply have positive and significant impact on economic growth pre and post consolidation.
(iv) To what extent does loan to deposit ratio have positive and significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post consolidation.
1.5 Research hypotheses
The following research hypotheses will arise for the research question raised above. These are;
(i) Liquidity Ratio of commercial banks does not have positive and significant impact on economic growth pre and post consolidation in Nigeria
(ii) Cash reserve ratio of commercial banks does not have positive and significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post consolidation in Nigeria.
(iii) Money supply of commercial bank does not have positive and significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post consolidation in Nigeria.
(iv) Loan to deposit does not have positive and significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria pre and post consolidation in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the study
In the wake of bank failures, the economy suffered severe stress. Many depositors lost their hard-earned money; many suffered starvation because their breadwinners lost their jobs in the process. People from different sphere of life have commented on this seemingly topical issue as it touches the very fabric of the national economic life. The study is being embarked upon as a way of further investigating the issue in a view to justifying the ongoing recapitalization exercise as directed by the Central Bank of Nigeria and how it would affect the Nigerian economy.
The research will be of benefit to practicing bankers, students of Business Studies seeking to study the Nigerian Banking Industry and the entire public who need to have knowledge of the recapitalization and consolidation of the Nigerian Banking Industry.
1.7 Scope of the study
In carrying out this research, attention would be focused on commercial banks’ consolidation (N25 billion capital base) and its effects on the Nigerian economy. The scope would have included other consolidation exercises around the world’s commercial banks but due to lack of finance and time, this could not be feasible.
1.8 Limitations of the study
This research work would have been appreciated mostly if it had captured a deep study of consolidation, merger and acquisition of commercial banks in Nigeria but because of the following constraint, it was found difficult.
(i) Financial Constraint: Financial problem was encountered by the researcher to carry out a detailed study of this research work. Limited capital at the researcher’s disposal restricted is gathering of enough materials for the purpose of undertaking this research work.
(ii) Time Constraint: Time was not of essence to embark on a more detailed work because the curriculum the degree programme is designed in such a way that courses are registered together with project thereby creating difficulties in conducting intensive work.