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THE IMPACT OF CEMENT FACTORY ON THE SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE HOST COMMUNITY YANDEV


Abstract

The development and expansion of cement factories in Nigeria are crucial due to elevated cement prices and the positive impact these factories have on host communities. This study focused on assessing the impact of the cement factory on the socio-economic development of host community with emphasis on Yandev Benue State, Nigeria. Data were gathered from 245 systematically sampled respondent through questionnaire administration. The collected data underwent analysis using descriptive survey technique, the data was analyzed using percentage and graphical presentation.  The establishment of the factory was perceived to have generally improved the income of the residents. Most residents diversified their income sources from agriculture to more lucrative businesses, with over 70% earning above the N30,000 minimum wage monthly. This suggests a positive economic impact on the community due to the presence of the cement factory. This suggests that the presence of the factory has brought about both positive and negative social impacts. In light of these results, the research proposes that the cement factory undertake initiatives, including the construction of schools, road development, provision of healthcare facilities, access to clean water, and the establishment of a modern market.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Cement serves as a fundamental component in construction, witnessing heightened demand due to extensive global infrastructural development. The global consumption of cement has surged significantly, with Hannah (2011) noting a rise in cement production in Africa from 1.5 billion tonnes per annum in 2015 to 2 billion tonnes per annum by the end of 2010. As of 2021, the production capacity further increased to 386.1 million tons per annum. In Africa, escalating prices of building materials and continuous cement imports have spurred the rapid establishment of cement factories (Busuyi et al., 2018). However, the production of cement is associated with various adverse environmental and health impacts in both developed and developing nations (Ambasht, 2012; Harley, 2017). Akande and Idris (2005) highlighted diverse socio-economic consequences on surrounding communities resulting from cement manufacturing. Studies conducted by Hilson (2012), Samuel (2012), and Canter (2015) identified pollution generation, land degradation, destruction of wildlife and crops, disruption of traditional values, and even the displacement of local populations as significant effects. These negative impacts have contributed to social tension, disrupted family ties, and community life, occasionally leading to economic inequalities. For instance, in Bangladesh, villagers faced displacement from their agricultural land, which was their primary source of livelihood (Hilson, 2012).

Industrialization is a term primarily linked to the historical development of Western European and North American countries during the 19th and 20th centuries (Purma, 2014). As Perkin, Radalet, Snodgrass Gillis, and Roema (2015) emphasize, industrialization is part of a broader modernization process where social change and economic advancement are intricately tied to technological innovation. The application of scientific principles to economic production results in industrialization, urbanization, and an enhanced quality of life for the population. Consequently, developed economies place significant importance on the growth of their industrial sectors. The argument often posited is that technological advancements leading to increased industrial activity drive the development of these nations. Industrialization plays a crucial role in economic growth, necessitating improvements in systems, technologies, and processes to utilize natural resources more efficiently. Remarkably, approximately one-fifth of global income is derived from the manufacturing industry, with nearly half of household consumption relying on goods from industrial processes (Ibbih and Gaiya, 2013). Mineral exploration has been instrumental in the social and economic development of many developed countries (Akande and Idris, 2015). Examples such as uranium mining in Canada and iron ore extraction in Germany have not only facilitated infrastructural development but also created high-quality jobs, ultimately improving living standards. The impact of industrialization on socio-economic development cannot be overstated (Aribigbola, Fatusin, and Fagbohunka, 2012). In developing countries, industrialization continues to drive technological advancements and employment opportunities. Large-scale mineral exploitation, according to Imasiku (2018), contributes significantly to foreign exchange earnings, Gross National Domestic Product (GNDP), government revenue, and employment in some southern African countries. Nigeria and other less developed countries are often considered economically backward due to their reliance on supplying raw materials to industrialized nations and importing manufactured products in return. Efforts to reverse this trend have led to the formulation and implementation of various industrialization policies (Nove, 2015). For example, the Nigerian government, at one point, established agencies dedicated to industrial development (Teriba, 2017). Despite industries being predominantly situated in urban centers while sourcing raw materials from rural areas, the limited socioeconomic transformation in many rural regions has prompted experts to advocate for rural industrialization. Calls have been made to support industries utilizing abundant materials in rural environments, such as iron smelting, cement factories, and vegetable and fruit canning. However, irrespective of the natural resources available in both rural and urban areas of the country, achieving development goals in Nigeria hinges on efficient and strategic resource management. The nation must capitalize on the full potential of its resources for comprehensive and sustainable development.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Industrialization is frequently regarded as the foundation for a nation's economic development and growth. Nigeria, like many other aspiring countries, has long embraced industrialization as a key focus for economic progress. The strategic placement of industries in previously nonexistent areas has shown notable effects on these regions. Numerous studies have delved into the prospects and impacts of cement industrialization on a significant portion of Africa's population. According to Winmore, Nyashadzashe, and Thomas (2012), cement serves as a fundamental construction ingredient, with high demand driven by extensive infrastructural development globally. Global cement consumption has surged, as evidenced by a rise in Africa's cement production from 1.2 billion tonnes per annum in 2005 to 2 billion tonnes per annum by the end of 2010 (Hannah, 2011). The escalating prices of building materials and consistent cement imports in Africa have prompted the rapid establishment of cement factories (Afeni, Cowood, and Isiaka, 2018). Despite the benefits brought by cement manufacturing industries, as noted by Harley (2017), local communities often fail to fully capitalize on these opportunities. Cement production is associated with multiple adverse effects on the environment and human health in both developed and developing nations (Harley, 2017). Akande and Idris (2015) disclosed various socio-economic impacts of cement manufacturing on surrounding communities, including land use disputes, health issues, increased crime, and infrastructural development. Negative consequences, such as pollution, land degradation, destruction of wildlife and crops, disruption of traditional values, and even the relocation of local populations, have been observed in studies by Hilson (2012) and Samuel (2012). The displacement of villagers from their agricultural land, a primary source of livelihood, resulted in disrupted family ties, community life, and economic inequalities, as exemplified in Bangladesh (Hilson, 2012). Afeni et al. (2018) conducted an assessment of the socio-economic impact of quarrying and processing limestone in Yandev, Benue State. Their research, utilizing questionnaires and statistical analyses like chi-square, revealed that lifestyles around cement manufacturing plants were generally characterized by poor education, leading to a high percentage of illiteracy. From the foregoing however, majority of the researches focused only on environmental and health impacts of cement factories on the populace. Only a few focused on the socio-economic implication on the people holistically. It is expedient to note that the cost of development could be detrimental on the short run but beneficial on the long run. It can be seen from the previous studies reviewed above that limited research were carried out on Yandev cement factory especially on the socioeconomic aspect. Hence, it became imperative for the researcher to focus in assessing the impact of the cement factory on the socio-economic development on the Yandev community.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The study has one main objective which is sub-divided into general and specific objectives; the general objective is to examine the impact of cement factory on the socioeconomic development of host community with emphasis on Yandev Benue state. The specific objectives are:

  1. To examine the impact of cement factory on the socioeconomic development of Yandev Benue state
  2. To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between cement factory production and socioeconomic development of the host community
  • To examine the role of cement factory on the infrastructural development of Yandev community
  1. To proffer suggested solutions to the identified problem
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

  1. Does cement factory have any impact on the socioeconomic development of Yandev Benue state?
  2. Is there any significant relationship between cement factory production and socioeconomic development of the host community?
  • Does cement factory play any role on the infrastructural development of Yandev community?
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

H0: There is no significant relationship between cement factory production and socioeconomic development of the host community

H1: There is a significant relationship between cement factory production and socioeconomic development of the host community

H0: Cement factory does not play any role on the infrastructural development of Yandev community

H2: Cement factory does play a role on the infrastructural development of Yandev community.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to Yandev community as the findings of this study will give them an insight on the corporate social responsibility of cement factory in the host community, the study will also be of great importance to the cement factory in host community as the study explore the importance of host community collaboration to enhanced smooth operation of the factory. The study will also be of great importance to researcher as the study will serve as a reference point to further studies.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study covers the impact of cement factory on the socioeconomic development of the host community with emphasis on Yandev Benue state. In the course of the study, there are some factors that limit the scope of the study;

AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

  • OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Cement: A cement is a binder, a chemical substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together.

Factory: A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial facility, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with machinery, where workers manufacture items or operate machines which process each item into another.

Socioeconomic development: Socio-economic development, therefore, is the process of social and economic development in a society.

Host community: The community that provides land for the use of large scale factory, agriculture and other businesses.

1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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Author: SPROJECT NG