This study investigated the classroom climate practices in public and private secondary schools in Ibadan Local Government Area of Oyo State. There are 17 public secondary secondary schools and 33 private secondary schools in Ibadan Local Government Area, 7 out of the 17 public secondary schools and 13 out of the 33 private secondary schools were selected through systematic random sampling technique. The sample used consisted of 20 schools in Ibadan local Government Area of Oyo State.A “Questionnaire Classroom Climate” (QCC) was designed to obtain relevant information from the respondents. The classroom climate questionnaire was given to the project supervisor and some experts in the field of Educational Management. Test re test method was employed to obtain the reliability of the instrument. The coefficient of the correlation was 0.75. Simple percentage was used to analyzed the data collected in answering the five research questions raised. The results showed that teacher motivational techniques, teaching strategies, interactive behavior, attitude to work and communication skills were not different in both private and public secondary schools in Ibadan Local Government Area of Oyo State. On the basis of findings from the study it was recommended that effective classroom climate should be encouraged by all and sundry that are involved in the classroom.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is the most important component of human resources development and is accorded a pride of place in many countries‟ developmental activities. There is no doubt that the importance of education cannot be underscored because there is no country that has succeeded without educating its people. Education according to Osokoya (2009) helps to improve security, health, prosperity and ecological balance in the world. It encourages social, economic and cultural progress, tolerance, national and international cooperation. Akomolafe (2009) describes education as a single most effective means of curbing size growth, reducing child mortality, eradicating poverty and ensuring democracy, peace and sustainable development.
Education is an instrument for the acquisition of appropriate skills, ability and competence both mental and physical also as equipment for individual to live and contribute to the development of his/her society (Lawal, 2003). Also, in the views of Usha (2007) it is the process of teaching and training of the child which has to do with imparting and acquisition of skills for a particular trade or profession in which applicable methods are used.
In today’s society, schools are being held accountable for every aspect of student achievement. Classroom management plays a major role in a student’s classroom achievement. Unfortunately, many of the education reforms have failed to mention or address the relationship between student achievement and student discipline (American Association of School Administrators, 2002; Brannon, 2010). Throughout the decades, classroom discipline has been cited as a major issue for teachers (Martin, Chiodo, & Chang, 2001; Martin & Sass, 2010). According to Shupe (1998), student achievement has been affected in schools where discipline and behavioral issues are not appropriately handled (p. 27). School discipline issues are increasing in public focus. Despite longstanding attention to the problem, there is a growing perception that not all public schools are safe places of learning, highlighted by extensive media coverage of school-based violent acts, like the recent (December 14, 2012) incident in Sandy Hook Connecticut, where twenty children and six adults were killed by an intruder. Discipline problems are of great concern in America’s schools (Brannon, 2010; Martin & Sass, 2010). More students are spending time outside of the classroom, in places like in-school suspension or out of school suspension, instead of in the classroom setting, which ultimately affects their academic achievement.
Even though several popular classroom management theories, such as Skinner (1967), Rogers, Wong (1990), Glasser (1985), and Canter (1990), are utilized in classrooms today, teachers are still concerned about classroom management and student achievement (Brannon, 2010). As teacher concerns and mandates have evolved over the years, classroom management techniques have been divided into two major components: behavioral (BM) and instructional management (IM). Based on Martin and Sass (2010), “Behavioral Management (BM) is similar to, but different from discipline in that it includes pre-planned efforts to prevent misbehavior as well as the teacher’s response to it” (p. 1126). BM refers to the general daily maintenance of the classroom, which includes classroom rules for student input during instructional time and the types of reward systems utilized (Martin & Sass, 2010). Instructional Management (IM) includes “aspects such as monitoring seatwork, structuring of the daily routines as well as teachers’ use of lecture and student practice versus interactive, participatory approaches to instruction” (Martin & Sass, 2010, p. 1126).
Research has provided definitions of classroom management. McCreary (2010) defined classroom management as “the methods and strategies an educator uses to maintain a classroom environment that is conducive to student success and learning” (p. 1). Efficient teachers should acquire a toolbox of classroom management strategies that they can use within their classrooms. According to Marzano (2003), “well-managed classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish” (p. 1).
As Marzono (2003, 2007) points out, the importance of students feeling safe at school is linked to student learning. Without this feeling of safety, students will develop anxiety and become uneasy in the classroom. Marzano (2003) reported, “Safe and orderly environment is protecting students from physical or psychological harm and maintaining order so learning can take place” (p. 40). This present study was guided by Martin and Sass (2010), who suggest that classroom management “encompasses teacher efforts to oversee the activities of the classroom including student behavior, student interactions and learning” (p. 1124).
Even though research shows the importance of classroom management, it is unclear which method or strategy is more appropriate to employ in elementary schools (Brannon, 2010). As teachers work through the new mandates and standards developed by the national and state governments and local school boards, classroom management strategies are driven to the end of their list. Even though many people have researched this topic, no one has yet pinpointed which method or strategy works best. According to Churchward (2009), “There are many experts telling us how to handle discipline problems in our classrooms. Yet these experts do not always agree” (p. 1).
The current trends: noninterventionist, interventionist, and interactionalist, are the approaches to classroom management that were investigated in this research project. Noninterventionist (proactive) is “being prepared and in control” (Churchward, 2009, p.1). Interventionist (reactive) is “doing “this” because some kid did “that!” (Churchward, 2009, p.1). Interactionalists are seen as believing students learn from interacting with peers in their environments, which is a shared classroom management strategy (Ritter & Hancock, 2007). Each of these classroom management philosophies, noninterventionist, interventionist, and interactionalist, is based on scholarly reasoning.
Harry Wong is the major proponent of noninterventionist discipline. He purports to the theory that classroom issues must be handled before an issue occurs. Wong (1998) commented that in this management strategy, “Students involved with their work, especially with academic, even teacher-led instruction; Students always know what is expected of them and they tend to be successful; there is very little time off task such as wasted, disruption, etc.; The classroom environment is work oriented along with being pleasant and relaxed” (p. 86).
Etheridge (2010) defined assertive discipline, originally designed by Lee Canter (2004), “as a disciplinary approach that is designed to acknowledge a take charge and assertive approach on the educator’s part. The procedure is oriented to the teacher and ensures that rule making falls under the teacher’s authority. Positive consequences, rewards, negative consequences, and punishment are items that were selected for the benefit of both the students and the teachers.” (p. 20)
The interactionalist uses a shared classroom management strategy (Glasser,1997) or foster student outcomes by adopting a combination of interventionist and noninterventionist approaches (Lanoue, 2009). These theories allow for the students and teachers to acknowledge the individual behavioral differences of others. This type of management allows a teacher to make modifications and adjustments in his/her classroom by determining how his/ her students desire to be treated.
Even though there is theoretical support for interventionist (Bandura, 1997; Canter & Canter, 1992; Skinner, 1974), noninterventionist (Kounin 1970; Rogers 2008; Wong & Wong, 1998), and interactionalist (Glasser, 1997; Lanoue, 2009) classroom management styles, little is known regarding how student outcomes might be related to these classroom management styles (Brannon, 2010). Further, no studies to date have contrasted teacher instruction management (IM) and behavior management (BM) styles on the percent of classroom students passing standardized tests of reading, math, and English language arts. Classroom management and learning appear to be linked. If elementary schools are striving to develop students who can be successful and who can achieve throughout their school experience, then classroom management techniques need to be studied to determine which method is more effective for the underlying goal: student success. Instructional management and behavioral management may be the keys to establishing a classroom management in which learning and achievement can be maintained within the classroom environment. However, few studies to date have explored possible differences between teacher management styles and student outcomes (Brannon, 2010).
Some teachers may use classroom management strategies that have a positive impact on the behavior of students, but some methods may be harmful for the child and the classroom. However, little is known regarding how student outcomes might differ by teacher classroom management style. Therefore, what was needed is a study that contrasts teacher instructional and behavioral classroom management styles in the important outcomes.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of the study:
- determine the impact of classroom management practice on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State.
- determine the impact of adequate classroom culture on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State.
- ascertain the impact of small class size on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo Stata.
- ascertain the impact of the use of classroom management techniquess on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are raised with regard to this research:
- what is the impact of classroom management practice on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State?
- what is the impact of the provision of adequate classroom culture on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State?
- what is the impact of small class size on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State?
- what is the impact of the use of classroom management techniquess on the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Oyo State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following are the research hypotheses:
- there is no significant difference in the performances of students taught social studies with classroom management practices and those in dilapidated buildings in Oyo State.
- There is no significant difference in the performances of students taught social studies in class with adequate classroom culture and those without classroom culture in Oyo State.
- there is no significant difference in the performances of students taught social studies in a small class size and those in a large class size in Oyo State.
- there is no significant difference in the performances of students taught social studies using classroom management techniquess and those taught without classroom management techniquess in Oyo State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The following assumptions are raised with regard to this research:
- classroom management practice can stimulate and facilitate effective learning and help to improve students‟ performance.
- classroom with adequate classroom culture can create a conducive condition for students to learn and can positively influence their performance.
- classroom with small size creates undistracted and noise free environment that allows effective learning to take place which in turn can improve students‟ performance.
- use of classroom management techniquess such as picture, map, chart and so on can positively affect students‟ performance.
1.7 Significance of the Study
findings of this study are of relevant to teachers who are the principal agents of curriculum implementation because it provides recommendations that would help them to make appropriate utilization of classroom management to create conducive atmosphere that would enhance effective teaching and learning. It is a fact that people work better in places where they feel comfortable and it is believed that the results of this work offered recommendations on how to better up poor conditions of schools thereby creating enabling environment for teachers‟ job satisfaction which no doubt will have positive effect on students‟ learning outcome. The work is of great advantage to non-governmental organization such as United Nation Children and Education Fund (UNICEF), United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and other related agencies to see the poor conditions of secondary schools in Nigeria and intervene where necessary.
Also, in a situation where government has been incurring a lot of expenditure in her budget in order to enhance educational programmes for individual and national development and for the attainment of educational goals in general. But, only to discover that her efforts have not been yielding the desired results. This kind of situation is usually not a healthy one hence calls for immediate solutions of which the results of these findings might be of help to government to compare its allocation of resources to education and what is obtainable in reality and adjust where necessary.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study was conducted to examine the impact of classroom management on the performance of students in social studies in junior secondary schools in Oyo
State. Thus, the study used JSS III students of Government Day Junior Secondary