1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Formal guidance began in Nigeria towards the end of 1959. Guidance and counseling service was introduced in kaduna state in 1983 following the directives from the federal ministry of education quoted in the new national policy on education.
The primary objective of guidance and counseling in the secondary school is to assist students in choosing career; selection of subjective, proper placement and good study habit. The researcher has noticed that student’s behaviors such as poop combination of subjects, lack of seriousness in studies and drug abuse may lead to inappropriate choice of career. Due to these problems, there should be a proper orientation on guidance and counseling to the junior secondary school (JSSIII) and senior secondary (SSI) students.
The aim of this study is to find out if guidance and counseling service are yielding any impact on the students behavior.
Over the years, many researchers and authors including professional bodies, world organizations and government agencies have spoken on the need for guidance and counseling service in schools.
Oladele (1987), Kalu (1992), Umom (1998), Abdulkareem (2001), Dikko (2001), Ekoji and Ekoja (2001) pinpointed the place and importance of guidance programmes in the Nigeria school system.
The Executive Secretary of National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) Dr. Nuhu A. Yakabu sometime ago stated that: “there should be a provision of guidance and counseling in secondary school level.
Yakubu (2002) opined that, “every post primary school should have a guidance and counseling department which should organize career talks from time to time at which distinguished professional would be invited as resource persons”.
The united nations organization (UNO) had accepted the observation of the united nations educational, scientific and cultural organization’s (UNESCO) report on the need for organized guidance services at secondary school level which states that: “African governments should perhaps consider providing more defined guidance for secondary school pupils in the light of their economic, social and cultural needs. Stronger guidance than in Europe will more reasonable in Africa because many families are scarcely capable of reaching well informed decisions and about the future of their children”. UNESCO 1962.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The aim of guidance and counseling service in secondary schools is to assist students to understand themselves, their problems and to be ale to solve these problems without difficulties.
An observation has been made by the researcher that in spite of the guidance and counseling in secondary schools in Doka area some students still drop out of school and some have non-chalant attitude toward their studies; others engage in drug abuse and juvenile delinquencies. This has been a major concern to the researcher and hence the decision to write this project so as to fine out if really guidance and counseling service have the mush desired and expected impacts on the students.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to identify:
1. The impact of guidance and counseling services in some selected secondary schools in Doka area.
2. The problems affecting guidance and counseling service in the schools.
3. The attitudes of students towards guidance counsellors.
4. The attitudes of parents towards their children’s career choices
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research question will guide this study:
1. Does socio – economic background of parents at times make some parents impose pressure on their wards early in life in terms of career choice?
2. Do peer group have any influence on students towards non-chalant attitude to studies?
3. what is the relationship between the students and the guidance and counseling teacher?
4. what is the degree of students exposure to guidance and counseling service in some selected schools in Doka area?
1.5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Just like in the case of a bread baker who must follow some steps in baking bread, so is the case of a counselor who must follow a process in order ro solve the problem of a client.
By going thought the works of authors such as Nwoje (1987), Peterson and Nisenholz (1991) and Okobiah (1992), there seem to be similarities and differences in their opinions. The counseling process according to Okobiah has four stages which are as follow:
1. Interviewing Stage: This stage is also known as the familiarization, orientation or introductory stage. The counselor and the client meet for the first time. The counselor inquires about the client’s name, class, parents, friends, progress in school and his mission to the counselor’s office.
2. Working Stage: This is the stages the counselor fully engages the client in discussion about what to do and how it will be done concerning the problem of the client. Here the counselor uses different techniques to diagnose the problem.
3. Terminator Stage: Thismeans bringing an end to the counseling relationship between the counselor and the client. The termination could be due to the following reasons: counseling goals have been achieved uncooperative attitude from the client, the client may decide not to continue, referral to an expert or death of counselor or client.
4. The fourth stage is the follow up stage. This is the stage the counselor will want to know what is happening to the client after termination.
These stages in the theoretical framework are relevant to the work at hand because it will help the researcher to know how the counselor will draw out the problem from the client and the kind of solution he will proffer.
1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
This study is most significant to students, teachers, parents and the society at large as its importance can not be overemphasized. Students will benefit from this study if guidance and counseling teacher actually play their role by helping in understanding their personal social and academic problems and how to go about solving them.
The aim of formal education is to shape the behaviour of an individual.
That is bringing about some desirable changes in the students behaviours.
Teachers will benefit from the study if government will play its role in funding guidance and counseling programme and administrators properly manage the money. This incentive would boost the teacher’s moral and they will produce quality student through effective teaching and counseling.
Parents and the society at large will benefit because they will produce competent and responsible individuals.
This study will help in making students to have good subject combination and help to fulfill their career. The rate of drug abuse and addition among students will be reduced because the negative impact of it will be pointed out to them; at the end of which families and the society at large will have fulfilled citizens.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study intends to investigate critically the impact of guidance and counseling service in some selected secondary school in Doka area. These schools are: Rimi College, Sardauna Memorial College, Maimuna Gwarzo Secondary School and Government Girls Secondary School.
The researcher has limited herself to these schools because they are nearer to her and she can not go around all the secondary schools in Doka area. In addition she is familiar with most of the students from these schools.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Ability – power to do special things. A student is said to have particular ability when he/she has the power to carry out a related physical or mental action without prior training or education.
2. Counseling – is an enlightened process whereby people help other by encouraging their growth. That is help to properly understand themselves, their environment and the problems that are causing a high rate of concern.
3. Counselor – is an expert in his area of specialization and also has cultivated skills in helping people understand their situation clarity their values and make informed decision for which they assume responsibilities.
4. Education – is the process of acquiring knowledge and skill so as to prepare an individual to live happily with himself and others in the society in which he lives.
5. Guidance – this is the process of helping a client to understand himself and his environment: understanding himself in terms of his interest, needs, fears, anxieties and general personality. He also understands is environment in terms of rules and regulations that must be obeyed to avoid any punishment.
6. Aptitude – natural tendency or talent or acquired skill which is assumed to underline and is conducive to an individual capacity to learn and attain a level of achievement in specific field.
7. Achievement – performance in school or college in a standardize series of educational tests.
8. Capability – ability to learn and to something
9. Career – way of making a living i.e one’s occupation or profession
10. Choice – a particular thing among several things to be chosen
11. Client – a student or an individual that get help from a guidance and counseling teacher.