The purpose of this research work was to examine the level of awareness and attitude of Colben students towards HIV/AIDS in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The problem of HIV/AIDS is alarming that the researcher tried to find out the actual knowledge of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education. The objectives of the study are to ascertain the level of knowledge on the causes of HIV/AIDS, the behaviour that leads to high risk of the infection, signs and symptoms and preventive measures used in reducing HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education. For a representative view, the researcher randomly selected her samples and administered structured questionnaire on 431 students. All the respondents returned completed copies of the questionnaire which were found usable because the items were properly and completely answered. Four research questions and hypotheses were set for this research. They focused on the level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education. Frequency counts, percentages and independent t-test were the statistical tools used in the analysis of data procured from the research questions and hypotheses. The findings were firstly that there was significant difference in the knowledge of the causes of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education. Secondly, there was significant difference in the knowledge of behaviour that leads to high risk of HIV/AIDS infection among the subjects. Thirdly, there was no significant difference in the knowledge of preventive measures adopted to reduce HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education. It was concluded that there was need for HIV/AIDS counselling for students in general. The main recommendation was that information about HIV/AIDS should be made available to students in their schools, hostels, homes, libraries, public gatherings and places of worship. Curriculum experts in health education are to incorporate concepts and topics on HIV/AIDS education in the contents of their textbook.
1.1 Background to the Study
HIV/AIDS has created a major health and social problems which has estimated to threaten the survival of individuals in most countries. In Nigeria HIV/AIDS situation is generally pathetic issues particularly the increasing rate of HIV/AIDS infection and death among College of Education Students in Ekiadolor-Benin City which is the chief concern of this research. HIV/AIDS was first officially reported in San Francisco in June 1981 by doctors from Los Angeles who discovered the strange disease fundamentally among male students who were homosexuals and intravenous drugs users. The disease is prevalent among homosexual because it is commonly found in the blood and homosexual engaged in anal sex which causes rectal bleeding that make transmission take place. most researcher believe that human beings acquired HIV/AIDS through different means. Several schools of taught which are idealism =, behaviorism and pragmatism et arose concerning the causes of HIV/AIDS is caused by a virus known as T-Lymphotrophic virus type III (HTL II) or AIDS related virus (ARV) infection of this virus does not always lead to Aid preliminary in good health other may develop illness varying severity from mild to extremely serious. The virus that subsequently lead to Aid diseases is called Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). According to population report 2007 of the Joint United Programme for HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) which show approximately 20,000 new cases of HIV infected occur per day globally, 50% of this are among young people 30% of over sixty million people living with HIV/AIDS are within the age bracket of 15 to 30 years. Population report (2001) Africa is the epic center of the pander because of it has felt the greatest of AIDS where of Africa constituted only 13.2% of world population it account for 69.2% i.e. about (2/3) of world HIV/AIDS cases. By the year 2007, 2.3 million Africa out of 36.1 million world wide have been infected (W.H.O.) AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death in the world wide number of one cause of death in Sub Sahara Africa in this region2 million death as result of AIDS was recorded for the year 2007 which make 80% of the total world wide population those infected with HIV/AIDS and Nigeria as a populous country is not excluded.
In Nigeria HIV/AIDS situation is getting worst a a result of ignorance, denial stigmatization and unsaved sexual practice. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS is increased by social factors such as moral decadence, conflict, inequality, and inadequate health care system and poverty. Ragging from research activities like huge financially having been invested by individual, local committee medical experts governmental organization to fight against the spread of the view and to take care of the people living with HIV/AIDS. The use of anti-retroviral drugs, use of micro biocide (for vaginal or erectal administration). Effective sex education, family life education (FLE) are all target campaigns against the killer disease HIV/AIDS. However, in many developing countries like Nigeria Aids remain a rising epidemic where there is inadequate knowledge about Hiv status indulge in HIV/AIDS friendly behaviour and illicit prenatal and unprotected sexual activities at an alarming rate. Whether in school or at home, the age of which most Nigerian students have their first sexual experience is increasing and also the rate of their promiscuity. As a result of the problem of lack of awareness mentioned above the study is undertaking to explain the phenomenon of HIV/AIDS, and way to spread and to create awareness on the risk danger severity and consequences of being infected with HIV/AIDS since Aids has remain on incurable disease.
College of education students Benin can reduce their risk of exposure to HIV/AIDS by modifying and changing their sexual attitude and behaviour.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
A lot of work has been done about Aids especially in terms of prevention and finding a cure, non governmental organization and governmental organization have put so much financial human materials resources in the war against Aids inspite of this the disease has continued to spread at an alarming rate and Africa countries recorded the greatest number of Hiv infections and death. The United Nation (UN) estimated that 34.3 million in the world have Aids more than 50% higher than what the world health organization global programme projected in 2002 with 24.3 million of them in sub-Saharan Africa Sampont, 2008
Everyone is vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infections but it has been observed that adolescent and student are more vulnerable, this is true in most developed and under developed countries from a substantial point of view today College of Education Ekiadolor Benin are under greater peril of HIV/AIDS, STDs and Aids control agency estimate that more than 60% of new cases of HIV/AIDS infections occurs in student between the age bracket of 13-17 years, this is because College of Education Ekiadolor Benin are becoming sexually active and having multiple sexual partners and their vulnerable misconception about course and consequence of the risk severity of the disease. Another issue to be considered is that parents shy away from educating their children sexually, and this type of education may not be in school curriculum which makes most students at risk as a result of ignorance? Not only this many affluent and poor young students with insufficient parental nurture and guidance because parent spend most of their time for mix of survival.
Some College of Education Student lack adequate and proper knowledge about this disease and their own development and its implication through the lack of awareness about protective and provisional health and how to utilize this service and this is attributed to the medical institutional effect today in Nigeria and turn lead to considerable negative aspect such as socio-economic on the students, family and society at large. This implies that if there is awareness and knowledge of consequence of HIV/AIDS among College of Education Ekiadolor Benin students the high prevalent could be reduces and students will embrace preventive behavioural change since the students of College of Education Ekiadolor Benin have the right to speak specifically in this HIV/AIDS era. The above problem stated necessitated the researcher to set about the project with view to correct e.g. the problem in College of Education Ekiadolor-Benin, in Ovia North East Local Government Area as the focus point.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
In carrying out this research the following objectives were set:
- to ascertain the level of knowledge on causes of HIV/AIDS among students in college of educations in Ekiadolor College of Education
- to identify the level of knowledge on the behaviour that leads to high risk of HIV/AIDS infection among students in Ekiadolor College of Education
- to ascertain the level of knowledge on the signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education.
- to identify the level of knowledge of preventive measures used in reducing HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the investigation.
- What is the knowledge level of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education on the causes of HIV/AIDS?
- What is the knowledge level of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education on the behaviours that lead to high risk of HIV/AIDS infections?
- What is the knowledge level of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education on the signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS?
- What is the knowledge level of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education on the preventive measures to be used to reduce HIV/AIDS infection?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested to guide the study.
- There is no significant difference on the knowledge level of the causes of HIV/AIDS among male and female students in Ekiadolor College of Education.
- There is no significant difference on the knowledge level of behaviours that lead to high risk of HIV/AIDS infections among male and female students in Ekiadolor College of Education.
- There is no significant difference on the knowledge level of the signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education.
- There is no significant difference on the knowledge level on preventive measures to reduce HIV/AIDS among students in Ekiadolor College of Education.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
This study is based on the following assumptions:
- The college of education students will be fully aware of the implications of HIV/AIDS infection.
- The teachers can also inculcate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention in students.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The HIV/AIDS scourge has grown to such a magnitude that it is now a global problem. It is hoped that this study will motivate the students especially in Ekiadolor College of Education, their parents, guardians and the general public towards behavioural changes that will prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. It will also alert them to the existence of the dreaded disease. The study will also create the sense of awareness necessary for guarding students from being victims of the disease.
The information gathered will be useful to students as well as lecturers, healthcare providers in schools and colleges, health educators and social workers. The findings will help the students, health workers and social workers to come up with strategies through which they can combat the disease through health promotion and education.
The findings derived from this study will be of tremendous help to the state and local government officials in providing appropriate seminars and conferences for health workers and take counselling measures to be used for people living with HIV/AIDS.
The study also will serve as a useful guide to the private sector as it will help them to proffer solutions on how to reduce the scourge of HIV/AIDS. This can be done through symposia, workshops, talk shows, conferences, role-play and simulation with the help of resource persons.
In addition, the religious groups in the state and especially Ekiadolor College of Education will utilize this information by organizing training and counselling workshops for the students, teachers and parents. The findings of the research will be used to counsel the students with or without HIV/AIDS knowledge. Finally, this study will, hopefully, be a valuable contribution to knowledge, as well as serve as reference material for future scholars.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study was carried out in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The study was restricted to students in college of educations in Ekiadolor College of Education. The population used included both male and female students in college of education within Ekiadolor College of Education.