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Information technology has become an essential part of the rapid and accurate transfer and processing of enormous volumes of data processed in international transport firms and port organizations. The proper management of systems, which process this information and communicate it to those who manage port operations, is vital for efficient transport. This explains why container-tracking systems are given high priority among operational computer applications in ports. Investigates into the use of information communication technology in maritime industry becomes pertinent. The importance of information technology in supply-chain management is also discussed









  • Background of the study

The maritime sector in Nigeria comprises of ports, shipping, dockyards, Inland Water Transport (IWT) and all marine related activities. It caters for the bulk of Nigeria's trade and investment through import and exchange of commodities which is critical for the economic development of the country. It also influences the pace, structure and pattern of development.

Recently, there has been a surge of concern about maritime safety and security, with particular focus on the danger that insecurity of the seas poses to Nigerian commerce and the country's peace and stability. The quest for peaceful trade and movement over the water ways, adequate security, stability and development in the Nigerian maritime sector is of paramount importance. Up until 2009, members of the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta, MEND, were a torn in the flesh of the government as they repeatedly blew up oil installations located in the Niger Delta. Their activities were brought to an end after the Government of President Yaradua instituted the Amnesty program, but in 2016, a resurgence of these militant activities has been observed with the activities of Niger Delta Avengers threatening to grind economic activities of the Nigerian state to a halt. The contributions of globalization to the spread of weapons of mass destruction are alarming. Advancing technology coupled with the global spread of ideas and technologies has made it easier for states and even groups with resources to access critical knowledge, materials and technologies, pursue the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction: biological, chemical or nuclear (Obahighbon, 2010). ICT, Globalization and Maritime Piracy in Contemporary Africa. The resurgence of maritime piracy in contemporary Africa constitutes another major security challenge to the continent's security. Maritime piracy has no doubt inflicted very profound economic, political, social and strategic consequences on the continent and it peoples that it threatens the entire fabric and ramifications of the continent's security architecture. The bewildering increase in the number of the incidences of maritime piracy is unquantifiable as the damage done to the continent's peace, stability, prosperity, development, environmental, investment, revenue, humanitarian, commercial, energy, and food security terms is colossal (Uadiale and Yonmo, 2010a). Accelerated globalization, which as a consequence has intensified and increased global commerce, as well as the Africa's states' failure to fulfill its quintessential traditional role and function of security provisions has impacted negatively upon maritime security, and consequently, resulting in the midwife of the phenomenon, of maritime piracy. The notoriety of piratical activities in Africa is concentrated in the Gulf of Aden, the Horn of Africa – waters of the Indian Ocean, as well as the Red seas areas for the Somalia pirates; as well as the Gulf of Guinea mostly caused by Nigerian pirates. There are, however, growing fears that Africa is gradually becoming the new hotspot for such attacks, with almost half of the world's reported pirate attacks (Uadiale and Yonmo, 2010a) With the rising challenges of crude oil theft, kidnapping, sea piracy, arms smuggling, terror attacks and other marine-related criminal activities already described above, ICT can provide a platform that would greatly facilitate the generation of action intelligence for the purpose of curbing the rising incidents of marine-related crimes and illegal activities. An example of the use of this actionable intelligence is the use of long-range surveillance facility which shortens the relay of information form ships in distress and also the reaction time for security forces on rapid deployment and rescue missions – thus improving safety of lives at sea. Another use of ICT in marine security is the waterways being equipped with radar coverage and satellite monitoring equipment; this will enhance the authorities' intelligence gathering capacity as it continues to battle privacy and illicit trafficking across the water ways. The Nigerian government should adopt the use of Maritime Operations Centers across various Marine locations in the country to meet and enhance its administrative and operational functions. Having an ICT enabled Maritime Operation Centre equipped with the right maritime sensors and surveillance tools will help improve maritime safety though effective dissemination of warning to ships and other marine vessels. Such investments will yield amongst others, improved operational efficiency, provide better service delivery, reduce overall costs and meet security and other underlying organizational objectives.

Apart from the factors of globalization and the States' failure in engendering the resurgence of this phenomenon includes: cultural acceptance, official corruption, opportunity, as well as the end of the Cold war and technological advances. The latter has allowed pirates access to modern weaponry, fast attack boats and advanced communications technology, in increasing their probability of success and, by extension, the attraction to piracy. Others include: the payment of ransom, the Amnesty program, neglect of maritime security, poor judicial approach, the use of fewer crew, the proliferation of arms, laxity of maritime security staff, etc. While most maritime security still remains a ‘mom and pop' affair, with an emphasis on the local technology end of the scale, some pirates are clearly making greater use of technology in their activities.


Maritime transport which is also called water borne transport is one of the modes of transportation of goods and /or persons, which has for centuries been the main prerequisite for trade transactions between nations and regions, and has without doubt, played an important role in creating economic development and prosperity(Igbokwe, 2001). The maritime industry occupies a very prominent position in the economies of nations all over the world. The industry in its strict sense embraces all business activities which take place within the maritime environment. These includes offshore economic activities such as fishing, salvage, towage, underwater resource exploitation/extraction, and onshore economic activities in ports, shipping activities, ship construction, repair and maintenance. Of all these, shipping stands out as the greatest boost to a nations economic growth and international status. This is because all other maritime activities revolve around shipping. The oil and gas sector, for instance depends on shipping, as it is the vehicle that drives it, enabling it to make all the difference in an economy. Due to the close link between shipping activities and economic development, most nations cannot afford to toy with the industry. It is in view of this that the researcher decide to investigate the use of ICT in maritime industry.


The main objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of the use of ICT in the maritime industry in Nigeria. But for the successful completion of the study, the researcher put forward the following sub-objectives;

  1. To identify the architecture of the ICT used in d maritime industry
  2. To highlight the areas of maritime industry in which ICT has been deployed
  • To examine the impact of ICT by comparing the pre-ICT and post-ICT period.
  1. To do cost benefit analysis of the introduction and use of ICT in the industry


For the successful completion of the study, the following research question was formulated

  1. What the architecture of the ICT used in d maritime industry?
  2. Are there areas of the industry that  ICT has been deployed?
  • Is there any relationship between the pre-ICT and the post-ICT period in the industry?
  1. Are the benefit derived from the introduction of the ICT commensurate with the cost?

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be useful to the management of the Nigerian port authority, as the study seek to enumerate ways of improving the maritime industry, the study will also be useful to the management of NIMASA as the study seek to proffer solution to safety of marine transport, as the study will guide the management of the agency to formulate policy that will enhanced effective usage and optimization of ICT, The study will also be useful to researchers who intend to embark on research in similar topic, Finally the findings of this study will also be immense benefit to government, academia, scholars, researchers and the general public.


The scope of the study covers the use of ICT in maritime industry, although in the cause of the study the researcher encounters some constraint which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities        and examinations with the study.
  3. c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the        researcher has other academic bills to cover.




Maritime history is the study of human activity at sea. It covers a broad thematic element of history that often uses a global approach, although national and regional histories remain predominant. As an academic subject, it often crosses the boundaries of standard disciplines, focusing on understanding humankind's various relationships to the oceansseas, and major waterways of the globe. Nautical history records and interprets past events involving ships, shipping, navigation, and seafarers


Information and communication technology (ICT) is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual

Water transport

Water transportation is the intentional movement by water over large distances. Methods of transportation fall into three categories: Aqueducts, which include pipelines, canals, and tunnels. container shipment, which includes transport by tank truck, tank car, and tank ship