1.1 Background to the study
Because travelling is a happy moment that people enjoy, most tourists take photographs when they travel as a part of their tourism activities (Cederholm, 2004). Therefore, it can be seen that tourism and photography are internally related (Lo, McKercher, Lo, Cheung, & Law, 2011). On the other side of the coin, many tourist destinations also present their destination images to their target tourists through photographs (Jenkins, 2003). Hence, images and photographs are crucial marketing communication materials that are used to promote tourism activities by many marketers (Cederholm, 2004) Visual information has increased among various websites, allowing tourists to explore and see these destination images (Cao et al., 2010). This is because visual factors such as images and colors in a photograph directly affect the advertising recognition and help to recall that advertising (Percy & Rossiter, 1983). Photographs are used as important factors that affect decision making about travel destinations of tourists, influencing their behaviors, and reflecting their satisfaction of tourism places (Garrod, 2008). Therefore, many types of photography can present the tourist destinations in many perspectives. For example, some travel destinations’ photographs show the beautiful landscapes and architecture (Snavely, Seitz, & Szeliski, 2006). Some photographs represent natural scenery and geographic locations (Cao et al., 2012). Some photographs might use different elements in those pictures such as color to affect people who look at those photographs (Lynn, Giebelhausen, Garcia, Li, & Patumanon, 2013). In this regard, the impact of elements represented in photographs that influences different decision making of tourists about the travel destinations is still questionable because the effectiveness among these elements have not been tested or compared The beach is one of the most attractive places (Cao et al., 2012) and popular travel destinations that most tourists desire to spend time travelling to during their summer vacation (Lobo, 2014). More than 80 percent of tourists who travel to beach destinations such as Hawaii and Caribbean are travelling for pleasure (Lundberg, 1971). When travelling, tourists take many photographs on beautiful beaches which normally have unique characteristics, especially the famous ones (Cao et al., 2012). On the other hand, many scholars use those photographs to track geographical destinations by using geographical tags and creating a photograph database in order to provide destination information and recommendations to users (Cao et al., 2010; Cao et al., 2012; Snavely et al., 2006; Wang & Cao, 2013). Among the variety of beach photographs, we also can classify beach photographs by the time of the day that the picture was taken. During the day time, it can be seen with blue sky and blue or green color of the sea. During the evening time, beach photographs illustrate the orange, yellow, and red, affected by sunset. Also, these photographs might be post‐processed according to photographers’ perspectives to make photographs look more attractive the way they design them to be.
According to the living Webster encyclopedia dictionary, photography is “act or the process of obtaining accurate representation of object by means of chemical action of light or other kinds of radiant energy on specially created surfaces.
The name: we owe the name photography to Sir John Herschel, who first use3d the term in 1839, the year the photographic process became public. The word is derived from the Greek word for light and writing.
There are two distinct scientific processes that combine to make photograp0hy possible. It is somewhat surprising that photography was not invented earlier than the 1830’s; because these processes had being known for quit some time. It was not until two distinct scientific processes has been put together that photography came into being.
The first of these processes was optical. The camwra obscura (dark room) has been in existence for at least foeur hundred years. There is a drawing, dated 1519, of a camera, obscura by Leonard da Vinci, about the same period its use as an aid to drawing and being advocated.
The second process was chemical. For four hundred years before photography was invented, people has been aware, for example, that some colours are bleach in the sun, but they have made little distinction between heat, air and light.
In the sixteen hundred Robert Boyle, a founder of the royal society, had reported that silver chloride turns dark under exposure, but he appear to believe that it was caused by exposure in air rather than light. Angelo Sala in the early seventeen century, noticed that powdered nitrate of silver is blackened by the sun.
In 1727 Johann Hein rich Schulze discovered that certain liquids change colour when exposed to light. At the beginning of the nineteenth century Thomas Wedgewood was conducting experiments he had successfully captured images, but his silhouettes could not survive, as there was no known method of making the image permanent. The first successful picture was produced on June/July 1827 by Nie,pce, using material that harden exposure to light. This picture requires an exposure of eight hours.
On 4 January 1827 Nie,pce agreed to go into partnership with Louis Daguerre, Nie,pce died only four years later, buy daguerre continued to experiment soon he had discovered a way of developing graphic plates, a process which greatly reduced the exposure time from eight hours down to half an hour. He also discovered that an image could be made permanent by immersing it in salt.
The Daguerre type process, though good, and each picture was a once-only affair. On January 31 1839 Williams Harry Fox Talbot, invented the calotype and by 1840, he made some significant improvements and was able to bring out a photographic illustrated book entitled “the pencil of nature”.
From then photography establishments started growing from mushroom to popularity In 1851 a new era in photography was introduced Fedrick Scott Archer, who introduced the collodian process. This process was more faster than conventional method reducing the exposure time to two or three seconds, thus open up a new horizons in photography. The collodian process required that the coating, exposure and development of the image should be done whilst the plate was still wet. Another process developed by Archer was named Ambrotype, which was a direct positive.
In the wet collodian process though in its time a great step forward, required a considerable amount of equipment on location, various attempts were made to preserve exposure plates, for development at a once convenient time and place, but the preservative lessen the sensitivity of the material.
In 1871 Dr. Richard Maddox discovered a way of using gelatin instesd of glass as a basic for the photographic plate. Dry plates could be developed much more quickly than with any previous technique. The introduction of dry plate marked a turning point. No longer did one need a cumbersome wet-plate; no longer was a dark room tent needed. By the 1860s, Cellloids had been invented, and John carbutt persuade a manufacturer to produce very thin celluloid as a back for sensitive material George Eastman is particularly remembered for introducing flexible film in 1884. And four years later he introduced the box camera and photography could now reach a greater number of people.
According to encyclopedia, publicity is a public awareness resulting from the spreading of information in the various communication media, it is the action involved in bringing the information to public notice; the information, advertisement, article and the like put forth to gain public attention.
It is information that attracts attention to a companies product; person or event. Third party usually from the media is often employed to generate publicity. It can also be a message issued on behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution.
Publicity is the start of 021 writing, then an illustrated writing, finally a visual message intended to make available, in most immediate manner, most concise, a slogan, a product, a mark. By the advertisement which mark the beginning of true publicity, publicity is certainty of artistic origin, but as it developed in diversified way, it was pushed into a ghetto which could well correspond to the “unconsciousness” of art. By its only existence, publicity clashes head-on the scale of social value put in place from the concept of “pure” art. However many of its expression was so convincing as works which are supposed to be born from a need of creation.
Photo publicity is therefore is the use photography in creating awareness. In the case of this study it is photographical publicity of tourism involve the graphical images to attract the attention of the general public to the tourist centres in Enugu State. It is aimed at arousing the mind of people towards tourism
1.2 Statement of the Problem
After a backpacking trip through to lekki, the only thing that remains are the memories of that experience captured in pictures and taken home to share with family and friends. People, no matter of age, sex or ethnicity, visit destinations to satisfy and fulfil certain goals and needs. They search for experiences that engage them personally, “dazzle their senses, touch their hearts, and stimulate their minds” (Schmitt, 1999, p. 22), “whilst indulging in fantasies, feelings and fun” (Holbook & Hirschman, 1982, p. 132). Often photography plays a key role in this experience. No matter where one looks, be it while walking through a narrow alley in a medieval town, crossing a monumental square in a capital city or resting on a bench in a national park, one can always observe individuals with their camera, tablet or smartphone close at hand to capture their experiences in pictures. It appears that photographing has taken a trivial role in the tourists’ holiday-making and has become the most important item during the vacation trip. Yet, some researchers (Korzay & Chon, 2002; Buhalis, 2003) believe that technology does not only have a positive effect on a person’s experience at a destination, sometimes it can also be overwhelming and distracting. In spite of these potential negative effects, one must admit that without the advancement of technology, tourism would not be where it is now. Less people would be able to travel, fewer places would be accessible and the range of offers would be less abundant. In addition, certain experiences are only possible through the use of technology (Aho, 2001). Desirable experiences can affect emotions, last longer in the minds of visitors and can influence their behaviour.
The question arises now whether too much technology, or more precisely, too much photographing negatively influences the experience at an attraction and distracts visitors from the essence of visiting a place, the place itself? Even though a number of studies have investigated technology in tourism facilities and its implications on tourist experience and satisfaction (Wang et al., 2012; Dirsehan, 2012; Othman, 2012) only little attention has been given to Tourism and Photography in Publicity thereby creating a gap in this field of research.
1.3 Aims of the study
The main aim of this study is to investigate Tourism and Lekki Conservation Centre: An Appraisal of the Photography in Publicity
1.4 Research Questions
- How does photographing change/alter the tourists’ experience at cultural spaces?
- How does photographing publicity affect the visitors’ emotional experience and their level of satisfaction
- To what extent does Photography in Publicity impact the visitors’ post-visit consumption behaviours in terms of intention to revisit, intention to engage in word-of-mouth communication and intention of on-site purchasing?
1.5 Objectives of the study
- To examine the different components of the tourists’ encounter with an attraction relate to each other and to what extend Photography in Publicity influence their relationships
- To understand how photography in publicity change/alter the tourists’ experience at cultural spaces
- To examine whether photographing publicity affect the visitors’ emotional experience and their level of satisfaction
- To analyze the level Photography in Publicity impact the visitors’ post-visit consumption behaviours in terms of intention to revisit, intention to engage in word-of-mouth communication and intention of on-site purchasing?
- To investigate the different components of the tourists’ encounter with an attraction relate to each other and to what extend Photography in Publicity influence their relationships
1.6 Scope of the study
The contribution of this research is multi-fold., only little research has been conducted on photographing and the tourist experience. This is probably due to the fact that technology has not yet gained an important status among tourism researchers. The study at hand provides therefore a better understanding of the complex connection between Photography in Publicity and the visitors’ perception of a cultural attraction and with it its influence on their post-visit intentions. By knowing the degree of influence of technology on the visitors’ encounter with a place, tourism managers can devise strategies to better accommodate the tourists’ needs and to enable experiences that are nourishing for all involved parties.