Amount: $39.69 |

Format: Ms Word |

1-5 chapters |


Bank Name: FCMB Bank

Account Type: Savings
Account number: 7749601025

Bank Name: Access Bank

Account Type: Current
Account number: 0107807602



Title page

Approval page




Table of content



1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study




3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis



4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation















This research investigates the effectiveness of communication skills in curbing the menace of drug abuse among youths in Mushin. Communication skills are considered to be a component of life skills. This research entails a pre-test /post-test with control group design that includes the selected youth in the study area. A total of 300 youth were randomly selected with the aid of simple random sampling technique. This research used the simple percentage and graphical representation of the analysis of the respondent response to the instrument use in data collection which is the questionnaire. The study found out that effective communication, guidance and counseling place a significant role in ameliorating the menace of drug abuse among youth in Mushin and Nigeria at large.






                                        CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background of the study

A drug is defined as any natural or artificial substance, other than food that by its chemical or physical nature alters structures or functions in the living organization (Dorwick and Maline, 2007). It is also defined according to their use; in pharmacology, as a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being. Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the nervous system, altering perception, mood or consciousness. Recreational drugs are drugs that are not used for medicinal purposes, but are instead used for pleasure. These include alcohol, nicotine and caffeine, as well as other substances such as opiates and amphetamines. Drugs are also used as food supplements like vitamin and we necessarily benefit from drugs in terms of ill health, though prescribed by doctors (Elizabeth, & Martin, 2007). On the contrary, drugs are harmful and fatal if they are used wrongly. Substances and drug abuse are used interchangeably by people, however, drug refers to medicine prescribed by doctor, while substances abuse may include chemicals other than drugs e.g gasoline, glue among others. Substance was considered abused if it is deliberately used to induce physiological or psychological effects for a purpose other than for therapeutic purpose. Farhadinasab, Bashirian, & Mahjoub, (2008) noted that substance abuse mostly initiates with smoking and alcohol consuming in adolescence. However, drug abuse among youth in Mushin could be as a result of interaction between the peer groups, availability and nature of the substance. Some environmental factors that contribute to drug abuse are cultural, parents’ behavior, regulations and policies, which restrict access to the drugs.  Communication holds substantial promise as a tool for reaching and persuading people to adopt new and healthier lifestyles. This has long been recognized by those interested in prevention of drug abuse and in other unhealthy behaviors (Flay & Sobel, 2003; Rogers & Storey, 2017; Schilling & McAlister, 1990; Wallack, 1989). Prevention efforts, such as the National Institute on Drug Abuse's “Cocaine: The Big Lie” campaign and the Partnership for a Drug-Free America anti-drug campaign, have heavily relied on the promise. It is also reflected in the launching in 1998 of a historic $2 billion, 5-year, media-based campaign directed at reducing illicit drug use among 9- to 18-year-olds. Drug alters the body functions either positively or otherwise depending on the body composition of the user, the type of drug used, the amount used and whether used singly or with other drugs at the same time”. NAFDAC (2000) as cited by Haladu (2003) explained the term drug abuse as excessive and persistent self-administration of a drug without regard to the medically or culturally accepted patterns. It could also be viewed as the use of a drug to the extent that it interferes with the health and social function of an individual. World Book Encyclopedia (2004) defined drug abuse as the non-medical use of a drug that interferes with a healthy and productive life. Manbe (2008) defined drug abuse as the excessive, maladaptive or addictive use of drugs for non-medical purpose.  Abdulahi (2009) viewed drug abuse as the use of drugs to the extent that interferes with the health and social function of an individual. In essence, drug abuse may be defined as the arbitrary overdependence or mis-use of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners. It can also be viewed as the unlawful overdose in the use of drug(s). Odejide (2000) warned that drug abusers who exhibit symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression, behaviour changes, fatigue and loss or increase in appetite should be treated by medical experts and counselors to save them from deadly diseases. On the other hand, we can on the broad sense define drug as any man made, natural or endogenous molecule which excretes a biochemical and physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ or organism. It is very important to note here that drugs are capable of being toxic and all drugs can produce unwanted effects in a high dose or if taken incorrectly. Therefore, the difference between poison and medicine is merely a matter of concentration. This campaign, directed by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), has many facets but relies primarily on televised anti-drug public service ads (PSAs) and is by far the largest federally funded drug abuse prevention effort in history, Nigeria government needs to emulate the strategies of the developed countries in the fight against drugs and substance abuse by the youth. Communication is a means whereby message is conveyed by one person, medium, or group of person to another person or group of persons or a target audience.  The media is the center point of communication in any country be it developed, developing or under-developed this has led to overdependence on the media in communication campaign against drug abuse. This strong dependence on the mass media in prevention efforts is not unusual—the mass media are the primary or leading components in a variety of public health campaigns and frequently are the only component (Backer, Rogers, & Sopory, 2002). As Bauman et al. (1991) note, “This is the most common and practical application of mass media in public health and, unlike multiple-component approaches, is capable of ready distribution on a national level. Communication campaigns to alter risky behavior are seen increasingly as a critical adjunct to adolescent programs and community-wide interventions”


The youths of Mushin constitute the high risk group with female getting more involved than they used to. The attention of the government has been drawn to this menace hence government has put in place National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA). The agency is charged with the responsibility of combating the problem of drug abuse and to check the trafficking of hard drugs. However, drug abuse continues to ravage the energetic strata of our society. The menace of drug abuse world over and Nigeria in particular has generated a great deal of National controversy, opposition, criticism and debate. The issue of what constitute drug abuse in Mushin town has become a thing of concern amongst the health workers, educational elites and other people alike. This is because the media has devoted little or no time to programs that will educate the youth on the dangers of drugs and substance abuse. Communication is seen as a key in ameliorating this menace yet communication skill is as scarce as black diamond. Communication skills which are a component of living skills can increase and improve Problem solving skills, may decrease interpersonal conflicts and finally promote health. This skill is reported to be effective in controlling addiction and decreasing drug use.  It is against this back ground that the researcher intend to investigate the “effectiveness of communication as a strategy to curbing drug abuse in Mushin.


The main objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of communication as a strategy for curbing drug abuse in Mushin. But to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives:

  1. i) To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between effective communication and drug abuse in Mushin
  2. ii) To examine the impact of drug abuse on youth restiveness in Mushin

iii) To ascertain the effect of counseling in ameliorating drug abuse in Mushin

  1. iv) To examine the role of the media in enlightening the youth on the dangers of drug abuse in Nigeria.


The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

  1. i) Is there any significant relationship between effective communication and drug abuse in Mushin?
  2. ii) Is there any impact of drug abuse on youth restiveness in Mushin?

iii) Does counseling have any effect in ameliorating drug abuse in Mushin?

  1. iv) Does the media play any role in enlightening the youth on the dangers of drug abuse in Nigeria?


The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

H0: there is no significant relationship between effective communication and drug abuse in Mushin

H1: there is a significant relationship between effective communication and drug abuse in Mushin

H0: the media does not play any role in enlightening the youth on the dangers of drug abuse in Nigeria

H2: the media does play a role in enlightening the youth on the dangers of drug abuse in Nigeria


It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the mass media as the study seeks to explore the role of the media in the campaign against drug abuse in Mushin. The research will increase the awareness of the menace drug abuse pose to our society. For policy makers, the research will be of great benefit. It will assist them in creating policies that will enable the eradication of drug abuse in our society


The scope of the study covers communication and drug abuse with emphasis on youth in Mushin. But in the cause of the study, there are some factors that limited the scope of the study;

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.



Drug refers to a substance that could bring about a change in the biological function through its chemical actions

Drug Abuse

Manbe (2008) defined drug abuse as the excessive, maladaptive or addictive use of drugs for nonmedical purpose.

Drug Addiction

A state of periodic or chronic intoxication detrimental to the individual

Sedative Drug

This depresses the central nervous system. These drugs lessen excitement or functional activities.


These are drugs that stimulate the central nervous system


This is a disease condition in the human system characterized by excessive and continuous consumption of alcohol


Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic rules.


Youth is the time of life when one is young, and often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity). It is also defined as “the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit,


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study