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The menace of solid waste generation and management is become unbecoming of lately. Poor waste disposal practices hamper the progress towards an integrated solid waste management in households. Knowledge of current practices and perception of household solid waste management is necessary for accurate decision making in the move towards a more sustainable approach. This study investigates the household waste practices and perceptions about waste management. The generation of solid waste has become an increasing environmental and public health problem everywhere in the world, especially in developing countries. The rate of generation of solid waste in the society is increasing with an increase of population, technological development, and the changes in the life styles of the people. As family size and income are the most significant factors affecting the quantity of solid waste from household consumption, a study on the relationship among these is vital in the decision making on waste management strategies. Therefore, a study was conducted at Calabar municipality to find out the relationship among residential solid waste generation, family size and income. The household sector is one of the primary sources of solid wastes in the study area

                                        CHAPTER ONE


  1. Background of the study

Solid waste problem in Calabar municipality has become a hydra monster in our society, with significant concern for national and local authorities in many cities of developing countries (Afroz, Hanaki, & Tudin 2011). Poor conditions of municipal solid waste (MSW) in these areas are represented by the accumulation of waste in the streets, a low waste collection rate, and the random dumping or burning trash in open spaces (Ahmed & Ali 2014). Improper waste disposal practices such as burning or dumping of waste at roadsides and vacant lands may cause environmental, health, and aesthetic damage, as well as depletion of natural and economic resources (Henry, Z. Yongsheng, 2016). The waste menace is determine by various factors, ranging from family size, income and environmental management in Calabar municipality. At first and before making decisions regarding improving the current waste practices or proposing new waste management scenarios, it is significant to have an overall perception of various aspects related to waste issues. First and fundamental point is to know the amount and characteristics of waste generated in order to determine the most successful and efficient waste management plans (Babayemi & Dauda 2019). Waste generation rates and composition differ from one nation to another and even between cities within a country since they are influenced by factors such as the level of industrialization, the climate, and the nature of socioeconomic development (Adeniran, T. Nubi, &. Adelopo 2017). It is common in developing countries that the daily amount of waste collected is not equal to the amount of actual waste produced by households. Can be attributed to inadequate waste collection services and informal waste picking activities. us, basic data on waste characteristics that are indispensable for the design and planning of the solid waste management facilities are absent, or at best, they are ambiguous and untrustworthy as they are derived from different sources based on estimates and judgments rather than correct measurements and field investigations (Adeniran, Nubi, & Adelopo 2017). Several research studies have been conducted to investigate the generation and composition of household solid waste in various regions over the world these studies indicated that waste characteristic study is critical for a few reasons, for example, the necessity to identify the potential of material recuperation from the waste mixture, to determine waste generation sources, and to ease the planning of treatment facilities. Furthermore, household solid waste is highly heterogeneous and is widely dependent on the socioeconomic status of the households the combination of socioeconomic factors identifies how a social hierarchy is organized, one’s position within this structure (Senzige, Makinde, Njau et al 2014). Although the features of urban areas in developing countries are common, waste management strategies should respond to local conditions and be inventive, decisive, and context sensitive. Environment issues related to waste generation are part of societal changes where households play a significant role. These societal changes impact the characteristic of given households, including family size, monthly income, social status, education level, residential location, and community status. Many studies have been carried out to illustrate the relationship between socioeconomic factors of households and solid waste generation and composition (Couth & Trois 2014). Nigeria today, having experienced a great increase in population rate and economic strength facilitated especially by the Industrial Revolution and the development of medical science and health care delivery system, rapid urbanization and rise in communities’ living standard, has witnessed waste generation in cataclysmic proportions. This problem is further compounded by the deterioration of the Nigerian urban environment vis-à-vis the indiscriminate dumping of wastes as apparent in our growing cities. In Calabar, the Cross River State Capital, for instance, the disposal of wastes was critically disturbing as huge piles of dirt were found littering public places in unprecedented proportions. With the Calabar Urban Development Authority (CUDA) responsible for general sanitation and waste management, three levels of waste management techniques were introduced. First, it became mandatory for each household to have a standard rubber bin to store refuse at the primary level. At the secondary level, flash points or transfer stations were established with dumpsters to prevent indiscriminate dumping of refuse brought from the household. And lastly, the personnel of CUDA dispersed into twenty-six (26) cells with supervisors, trucks, and workers in Calabar would, at regular intervals (usually between 2-3 times a week depending on how densely populated the areas are) and preferably in the evening, transfer the refuse from the dumpsters at the 366 flash points in Calabar to the final disposal sites at the Lemna Road in Calabar Municipal Council. The final disposal of refuse is by land-filling.


It has been observed that there are waste dumps by the road sides, open drains and open spaces, and paper and vegetable wastes in markets and residential areas throughout Calabar metropolis despite the efforts of CUDA to keep the town clean and green. These untended dumps constitute an aesthetic disaster and have strategically reduced the city’s long standing status as the cleanest in Nigeria. Also, ground water studies have ascertained that large chunks of garbage are buried in landfills where leachates which are often toxic substances that were disposed-off, found among solid waste migrate into the earth in the direction of ground water flow to contaminate the underground sources of water (Eni, Ubi & Digha, 2014). This makes boreholes located close to the Lemna dumpsite in Calabar Municipality and other flash points vulnerable to toxic contamination. Further, as solid waste decomposes, chemical vapours are discharged into the atmosphere resulting to air pollution since the stench oozing out from them are unbearable and this has serious health implications like suffocation, asthmatic disorder and other respiratory conditions. These open and untended dumps which provide the perfect breeding sites for vectors such as, inter alia, rats, cockroaches, ants, dung beetles, mosquitoes, houseflies, spiders, centipedes, millipedes, snakes, scorpions, and stray dogs, are usually close to residential areas, and put the residents at high risk of diseases such as cholera, yellow fever, dengue fever, typhoid fever, Lassa fever, dysentery, malaria, microfilariae, etc., which accounts for high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. More so, when it rains, the dumped wastes are usually washed into open drains and this does not allow for the proper passage of water which will serve as breeding sites for disease-bearing organisms such as mosquitoes, tsetse flies, houseflies, etc., and causing flooding which could carry in dangerous animals such as snakes and crocodiles into residential areas, which are inimical to the well-being of human beings. The management of household solid waste has been a major challenge facing agencies responsible for solid waste management in Calabar as the volume of solid waste being generated continues to increase at a faster rate than the ability of the agencies to improve on the financial and technical resources needed to parallel this growth. In urban area, streets, residential backyards, waterways, uncompleted buildings, public spaces and undeveloped plots are littered with solid wastes as illegal refuse dumps for households. This is due to lack of adequate spatial distribution of designated household refuse collection points because it does not coincide with the rapid population growth and variation in neighborhood characteristics, leading to inefficient solid waste management by the Calabar urban development agency (CUDA) as well as the State Ministry of Environment in conjunction with the Calabar south Local Government area.


The aim and objective of this study is to examine the effect of family income and size on volume of household solid waste generation in Calabar municipality. The specific objective are;

  1. To examine the effect of family size on household solid waste generation in Calabar municipality
  2. To examine the impact family income on household solid waste generation in Calabar municipality
  3. To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between family income and family size on solid waste generation
  4. To examine the role of government on the management of solid waste in Calabar municipality

  The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

  1. Does family size have any effect on household solid waste generation in Calabar municipality?
  2. Is there any impact family income on household solid waste generation in Calabar municipality?
  3. Is there any significant relationship between family income and family size on solid waste generation?
  4. Does government play any role on the management of solid waste in Calabar municipality?

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher in null form to aid the completion of the study;

H0: Family size does not have any effect on household solid waste generation in Calabar municipality

H02: Family income does not have any impact on household solid waste generation in Calabar municipality

H03: There is no significant relationship between family income and family size on solid waste generation


The scope of the study covers the effect of family income and size on volume of solid waste generation in Calabar municipality. The scope of this study is limited to urban and densely populated area of Calabar municipality within the Calabar South local government area (LGA) of Cross River state.


The accumulation of wastes at various corners of the Calabar municipality coupled with varying levels of collection or non-collection in areas of the town, inadequate transportation and storage facilities has made refuse common features of the Calabar municipality. Despite the efforts put in by the Calabar urban development agency (CUDA)  as well as the State Ministry of Environment in conjunction with the Calabar south Local Government in managing solid waste in Calabar municipality, it still faces waste management problem. In order for the State Government to overcome the technical and financial deficiencies associated with the current system, the State Government resorts to the use of private contractors for collection, transportation and disposal and the presence of informal private operators in high and medium income neighborhoods. Yet, the problem still persists. It is in view of that that the researcher believes that this study will be of great importance to government and ministry of environment in combatting household solid waste generation in Cross River state.

  1. STUDY AREAPhysical geography of the study area

Calabar Municipality lies between latitude 04° 15′ and 5° N and longitude 8° 25′ E. in the North, the Municipality is bounded by Odukpani Local Government Area in the North-East by the great Kwa River. Its Southern shores are bounded by the Calabar river and Calabar South Local Government Area

Map of Calabar Metropolis | Download Scientific Diagram
  1. Human Geography Of The Study Area

Calabar is the capital city of Cross River State, Nigeria. It was originally named Akwa Akpa, in the Efik language. The city is adjacent to the Calabar and Great Kwa rivers and creeks of the Cross River (from its inland delta). Calabar is often described as the tourism capital of Nigeria, especially due to several initiatives implemented during the administration of Donald Duke as governor of Cross River State (1999–2007), which made the city the cleanest and most environmentally friendly city in Nigeria. Administratively, the city is divided into Calabar Municipal and Calabar South Local Government Areas. It has an area of 406 square kilometres (157 sq mi) and a population of 371,022 as at 2006 census. The paramount ruler of Calabar Municipality is known as the Ndidem of the Quas and paramount ruler of Calabar municipality, he is the president of traditional rulers council in Calabar municipality and grand patriarch of Ejagham Nation.


 Family income

Family income is the combined total income received by all members of a family before taxes.

Family size

The total number of people related by blood (consanguinity), marriage (affinity), or adoption that live together.

Household solid waste

Household waste is one of the primary sources of MSW comprising of food wastes, paper, plastic, rags, metal and glasses from residential areas. Household waste is among the solid wastes managed by Calabar urban development agency (CUDA)  

Waste generation

Developed societies, such as the U.S., generally produce large amounts of municipal solid waste (e.g., food wastes, packaged goods, disposable goods, used electronics) and commercial and industrial wastes