TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Objective of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
2.2 conceptual review
2.3 empirical review
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
The universal growth of social media usage among students has been linearly associated with academic performance. Studies have shown that parenting styles have influence on the development of the child and could be directed by culture. The family is central to the Nigerian culture. As important as parenting style has been perceived, research gaps still exist in relating parenting styles with such psychological constructs as test anxiety and self-efficacy which have been associated with academic successes of students. As social media use continues its constant growth, its application among students is inevitable. Its influence on academic performance turns out to be an ever more important question to think about. Researchers have mixed results, some found social media usage having little to no effect, and others found negative and positive effects on academic performance. Using a population of 300 students in selected secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis, this study makes an effort on how to deal with these differing outcomes and to investigate the effect of media usage, parenting style and self-efficacy on students’ academic performance.
1.1 Background of the study
Self-efficacy beliefs are a better indicator of success than actual ability has stimulated research in many academic disciplines (Bandura, 2007). The present study provides evidence to support this claim within an education context. Although studies investigating the self‐efficacy of students have found conflicting results on gender differences (Byrne et al., 2014), and prior learning at high school (Duff, 2004), the relationship of self‐efficacy to academic performance is generally supported (Multon et al., 2011). According to Dogan (2015), self-efficacy is about the belief in one’s ability to succeed especially within specific situations or accomplishment of certain tasks. Consequently, self-efficacy is another factor that is likely to be considered as a variable defining and determining academic performance. Self-efficacy refers to a student’s belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments (Bandura, 2007).
In modern global system of intense communication, internet usage has had an incredible influence on social interaction among individuals. Internet discovery has empowered social media to gain wider suitability and usability and is also becoming the most noteworthy communication tool among students, especially at the higher level of education. Social media usage is more prevalent in higher education settings as instructors use technology to further improve their delivery to promote learning among students. In academic environments, social media usage encourages students to partake and create very thorough and detailed learning through communication, critical thinking, and collaboration (Liburd 2013). Social media also promote communication among stakeholders within the educational environment and assist internet learning (Cox, D 2014). Furthermore, social media is an effective tool in conducting research and sharing personal academic interests, and can be used to create groups meant for academic purposes, and improve e-textbook functions by linking students with collective ideas for the purposes of working together.
Self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one’s own motivation, behavior, and social environment (Bahmanabadi & Baluchzade, 2013). Self-efficacy beliefs can be described as the confidence one has in the ability to perform certain tasks and/or skills (Bandura, 1997). These beliefs may or may not reflect accurately a person’s ability. Within an educational setting, we evaluate achievement in terms of academic success, for example, when students are able to pass a course. Potentially, even a very talented student with the ability to achieve at a high level may have low self‐efficacy beliefs, thereby reducing the chance of academic success (Bandura, 1997). Secondary education is recognized as a type of education students is attaining after primary education and before tertiary education. Secondary school education include; junior secondary education, senior secondary education, high school, and continuing education given in Vocational Enterprising Institutions. The goal of secondary school education is to prepare students for useful living within the society and higher education (Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), 2013). To achieve this objective, schools that offer secondary education in Nigeria require six years duration in two stages: 3 years for Basic Level and 3 years for Post Basic Level. Basic level of education is education a child receives immediately after primary education which provide the child with diverse basic knowledge and skills for entrepreneurship and educational advancement. The academic performance among students has led experts to come up with many variables that could effectively assist students to improve their performance. Similarly, Olanrewaju (2014) stated that different factors are capable of predicting the performance of students. These factors may be students’ intelligence, state of health, self-esteem, anxiety. Others are students’ environment; availability of suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories. However, self-efficacy could be predicting factor of students’ academic performance. Self-efficacy is defined as the belief in one’s capabilities to carry out, organize and perform a task successfully (Bandura, 1997). Bandura stated that self-efficacy has to do with a person’s belief in his capacity to exercise control over his own behaviour and over events in order to generate a desired outcome. The author asserted that self-efficacy is a very important motivationof individual to push through with an action. Beliefs about self-efficacy influences how people think, feel, encourage themselves and behave. Thus, the greater a person’s degree of selfefficacy, the more determined he will be and the greater the chances that he will be successful in achieving a goal. Self-efficacy is the driving force that makes people pursue a goal and overcome obstacles. Students with high sense of efficacy have the capacity to accept more challenging tasks, higher abilities to organize their time, increased persistence in the face of obstacles, exhibit lower anxiety levels, show flexibility in the use of learning strategies and have a high ability to adapt with different educational environments (Elmotaleb and Sahalof, 2013). High school students and entry-level college students are struggling to maintain the selfefficacy and motivation needed to accomplish rigorous and challenging tasks in both high school and college. Hibbs (2012) stated that a student’s level of efficacy impacts the amount of effort applied and the degree to which he or she will persevere through a difficult task. In support, Ersanla (2015) asserted that students with higher self-efficacy do not easily give up when confronted with difficulties. Wernersbach, Crowley and Bates (2014) suggested that individuals who are doubtful about their capabilities are easily discouraged by struggles and failures, whereas individuals with more confidence persist despite obstacles until they find success.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Education has over the years been regarded as key to entire individual’s development (Ali, McWhirter & Chronister, 2005). Throughout one’s life, it is education that remains central to shaping the goals and ideals of an individual; pace of coping with daily challenges and integral development. Society’s development is also determined by the standards of education that people undergo. Hence aspects that determine an individual’s academic achievement remain vital to any member of the society that values development. Though academic achievement is vital at every stage of personal growth it is regarded as crucial at adolescent stage; as this stage determines one’s success or failure in life in what is described as identity crisis (Boon, 2007). It is well known that education is highly demanding, and for those moving from primary school to secondary school it is a challenging life transition in their development. This transition has been found to be associated with a great deal of stress and other personal and social adjustment problems (Cutrona, 1982; Hammen, 1980; Lokitz & Sprandel, 1976), and thus places significant demands on them (for review, see Noel, Levitz, & Saluri, 1985). However, many young people are inadequately prepared for the psychological, emotional, and academic realities of higher education (Francis, McDaniel, & Doyle, 1987). Consequently, the first year is often associated with the adaptation challenges of living apart from families and former friends, adjusting to the new academic environment, assuming responsibility for the tasks of daily living, and developing a new array of social relationships with peers and the staff of the school (Henton, Lamke, Murphy, & Haynes, 1980). These, together with the various potential problems associated with the adolescence and young adulthood periods, may have a great effect on the academic achievement of students.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study has one main objective which is sub-divided into general objective and specific objective; the general objective is to examine media usage, parenting style and self-efficacy in academic performance among secondary school student in Ibadan. The specific objectives are;
- i) To examine the effect of media usage on the academic performance of secondary school student in Ibadan
- ii) To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between parenting style and self-efficacy of secondary school student in Ibadan
iii) To examine if there is any relationship between media usage and self-efficacy of secondary school student in Ibadan metropolis
- iv) To proffer suggested solutions to the identified problem
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
- i) Is there any effect of media usage on the academic performance of secondary school student in Ibadan?
- ii) Is there any significant relationship between parenting style and self-efficacy of secondary school student in Ibadan?
iii) Is there any relationship between media usage and self-efficacy of secondary school student in Ibadan metropolis?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
H0: There is no significant relationship between parenting style and self-efficacy of secondary school student in Ibadan
H1: There is a significant relationship between parenting style and self-efficacy of secondary school student in Ibadan
H0: There is no relationship between media usage and self-efficacy of secondary school student in Ibadan metropolis
H2: There is a relationship between media usage and self-efficacy of secondary school student in Ibadan metropolis
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since there is a paucity of empirical studies of this kind in Nigeria, it is believed that the findings and implications of this study will be of a great importance for secondary education in Ibadan, educational practitioners, parents, and university students. Understanding the factors that affect students‟ academic achievement will enable higher education institutions and policy makers to develop strategies and techniques for intervention to maximise students‟ academic success in higher education institutions, in general. Furthermore, the findings of this study will have implications for theories in the field of socialization to understand the parenting style predominantly practiced in Ibadan Metropolis, which will expand our knowledge of the socialization of adolescents and young adults in the Ethiopian cultural context. It is also believed that the findings and implications of this study will contribute to debate concerning the different types of parenting styles and their effects on children’s, adolescents‟, and young adults‟ academic achievement in different cultural contexts. It is thought that the findings and implications of the current study will be important to build and extend previous research in the area, and fill a gap in empirical work since studies in this area mainly focus on Asian and Western countries, excluding sub-Saharan Africa. Finally, the results of this study will ascertain directions for future researchers in this are
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers media usage, parenting style and self-efficacy in academic performance among secondary school student in Ibadan. But in the course of the study there are some factors that limit the scope of the study which were out of the researchers control;
AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry
Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation or sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks
A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing.
Self-efficacy is, according to psychologist Albert Bandura who originally proposed the concept, a personal judgment of “how well one can execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations
Academic performance or “academic achievement” is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.