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The pursuit of academic excellence places immense pressure on students, teachers, schools, and the education system as a whole. Academic performance seems to be the central focus of education, despite the expectation for various other outcomes from the system. Consequently, schools invest significant time and effort in helping students succeed academically. Education is defined as a process of teaching and learning that aims to foster the holistic development of an individual’s personality. This development encompasses moral, social, religious, cultural, intellectual, physical, and economic aspects, as highlighted by Sultan (2011). In simpler terms, education involves acquiring the knowledge and skills necessary to adapt to and thrive in social and physical environments during the process of personal growth, as described by Adeloju and Obademi (2014). Smith (2015) succinctly states that education is “the wise, hopeful, and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken with the belief that everyone deserves the opportunity to participate meaningfully in life.” Thus, regardless of socioeconomic background or any other factor, all individuals have the right to become meaningful agents of national transformation. The educational process molds individuals into socially responsible beings who are emotionally and intellectually well-equipped to coexist with others in society. Therefore, education is an indispensable tool for any nation aspiring to progress and development. In an era of significant national and global transformations, it is crucial for a nation’s workforce to attain and sustain a state of technological and scientific preparedness, enabling them to thrive in the global economy. To achieve this readiness, it is essential to fully develop the potential of all segments of the population. One approach to accomplishing this is by promoting and fostering scientific literacy, as advocated by Aderemi, Hassan, Siyanbola, and Taiwo (2013).

Hussain (2020) defines study habits as the predispositions that adult learners develop towards private reading over time. He asserts that study habits serve as a pathway to successful academic achievement. A study conducted by Morahan (2019) explored the differences in study habits between males and females. Powell (2011) investigated the relationship between age and deep level study habits in vocational Nursing program at Angela College. The result indicates that there are differences between younger and older vocational nursing students in the vocational nursing programme at Angelina College. The results obtained support the hypothesis that students in this programme aged 23 and older tend to use deep and strategic approaches to learning more frequently than students aged 18-22. In addition, the results indicate that younger students utilize superficial approaches to learning more often than the older students’ learn. Singh, Muktesh & Snehalata (2010) examined the nature, type and characteristics of study habits in Emerald Heights India high school children in relation to various orgasmic variables like gender, age, class or grade level and scholastic achievement. The sample for the study was drawn from two private English medium schools in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, comprising of 250 high school students including equal number of boys and girls from class/grades VIII, IX and X. A 40-item questionnaire was used to elicit study habits of the sample. The results indicate an overall mean study habits score for the total sample was 42.33 (SD: 8.21). The girls had better study habits than boys do-which is matched with similar lower ratings given by their class teachers for boys than girls are. The research revealed that male adult learners tend to gravitate towards courses that involve logic and sciences, while female adult learners are more inclined towards simpler courses aligned with their interests. These differing study habits may have a positive impact on the academic performance of adult learners. The ability to schedule time effectively, create study plans, concentrate, take notes, engage in mental review, utilize overlearning, and apply various learning methods such as whole and part method, massed learning, and distributed learning are all crucial factors that contribute to positive academic performance and achievement for adult learners. In essence, proper study habits and skills play a vital role in determining academic success. Given the significant role of study habits in the learning process, it is imperative to delve into their nature through further investigation.  


The problems associated with study habits might have a major effect on an adult learner’s academic performances, it is believed that everyone has a different study habit and it is important to find out the best personal way to study. Studying with friends has a long way to go in adult learner’s study habits, it has a positive influence in which they discuss what have been read together but also has a negative effect in which they might not read but discuss throughout the stipulated time for reading which boils down to time wastage. A very good and conducive environment encourages adult learners study habit and might have positive impact of their academic achievements but adult learners reading in an unfavorable environment might find it difficult to study which might affect their academic achievements. Adult learners with financial constraints might also find it difficult to perform excellently well in their academics. To explain factors responsible for poor academic performance, researchers have come up with different factors at different times. These include poor study habits, gender, age, parents’ level of Education and marital status. Also, observed that such studies have not been able to explain the differences in academic performance among students. Therefore, there is need to search for more variables. In addition, such studies did not take into cognizance the interrelationship of such variables. These areas generally have been investigated separately from one another. It appears that no single study looked at the relationship between study habits and academic performance of adult in university of Lagos. Much remains to be studied on the relation of study habits, age, marital status, parents’ level of education and gender as predictors of academic performance. In respect of gender in relation to academic performance and study habits, there is dearth of literature.