Inter-professional collaboration is fundamental to the safe, high quality, accessible, patient centered care desired by all. This study examines the efficacy of team work and organizational performance of university of port Harcourt teaching hospital. A descriptive research survey was used and the research data were collected from a sample of 300 healthcare teams working in the Secondary Healthcare Facilities (functional General Hospitals) located in the local government areas of Rivers state. Two hundred and ten patients were selected using a convenient sampling technique during the field work period to ascertain their level of satisfaction with the services of the healthcare teams. Two null hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistics at 5% level of significance, with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). This study found that professional interdependence and mutual trust are prerequisites for gainful team cohesiveness, efficient material resource utilization, and efficient time use in healthcare delivery system. However, professional diversity is inversely related to team cohesiveness and does not enhance minimization of time spent in healthcare services.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
Team building is the process of helping a workgroup become more efficient in accomplishing its tasks and in satisfying the needs of group members. Team building is an intervention conducted in a work unit as an action to deal with a condition(s) seen as needing improvements, defined team building as a process by which members of a group diagnose how they work together and plan changes which improve their effectiveness. Team building represents a varied concept for different professional groups with a common agreement that team building is a process aimed at improving the performance of a group. Team processes describe subtle aspects of interaction and patterns of organizing that transforms input into output. Team processes can be described in terms of seven characteristics; coordination, communication, cohesion, decision making, conflict management, social relationships and performance feedback. Teams require the right number of members with the appropriate mix and diversity of task and interpersonal skills. A balance between homogeneity and heterogeneity of members’ skills, interests and backgrounds is preferred. Team building is a new concept used in business circles and amongst business executives to stimulate work teams. Its objective is to build team spirit, team synergy or to consolidate teams. Developed at the beginning of the 1980’s in the United States, team building has become the most popular group and leadership training approach in both Europe and North America. The majority of middle and large businesses use this type of activity at one time or another Phaneuf, M (2007). Homogenous teams are composed of similar individuals who complete tasks efficiently with minimal conflict. In contrast, heterogenous teams incorporate membership diversity and therefore facilitate innovation and problem solving. Healthcare teams are often large, due to norms of professional representation, regardless of contribution to patient care. In the healthcare sector, human resources for health have been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as those who promote and preserve health as well as those who diagnose and treat diseases. Also included are health management and support workers who help to make the health system functional but do not provide health services directly. This definition include the medical doctors, nurses, nutritionists, psychologists, social health workers, health record keepers, administrators and the security personnel, among others. [Oandasan, I., Baker, G. R., Barker, K (2012)], defined a team as a collection of individuals who are interdependent in their tasks, who share responsibility for outcomes, who see themselves and who are seen by others as intact social entity embedded in one or larger social system and who manage their relationships across organization borders. Health professionals perception as to whether or not they belong to a team varies, in some cases these professionals see themselves as working in uni-professional teams (for example a nursing team) while others see themselves as inter-professional team working in institutionally based teams such as a stroke team comprised of a range of professionals. In their own contribution, Nazzaro, A. and Strazzabosco (2009), defined a team as a group that has a job to do, whether as paid participants or as volunteers. They added that it is a group that has spent some time together, whether in smaller increments over a long period of time, or by spending a weekend or more working together on something. It is a group that achieves cohesiveness; a team’s strength is found in the relationships among the team members. It is a group with a common objective, whose members are very clear about working toward one purpose. It is a group whose members are interdependent. Whereas other groups may recognize the strengths of each member, team members rely on the strengths of each member to accomplish the objective. According to, team processes describe subtle aspects of interaction and patterns of organizing that transforms input into output in an establishment. This includes communication, co-ordination, cohesion, decision-making, conflict management, social relationships and performance feedback, reported that in the healthcare sector there are different types of teams these includes labor and delivery units, primary health care teams, intensive care units, teams assembled for a specific task such as an emergency response team or inter-professional teams such as multidisciplinary cancer care team, explained that the aim of team building is to achieve teamwork and not necessarily collaboration because not all collaboration gives rise to inter-professional teamwork. They added that teamwork is the interaction or relationship of two or more health professionals who work interdependently to provide care for patients. Team can be described as a group of people who work together to achieve the same goals and objectives for the good of the service users and organizations in order to deliver a good quality of service. Team building, planning events and activities have the potential to bring the people you employed to a strong sense of direction, workable plans and solutions, a powerful feeling of belonging with and on the team and clear strategic customer-focused values. Poor team building and planning sessions bring disillusionment, low morale and negative motivation of the entire organization. They fail to deliver the results expected. Organizations flounder with little strategic direction. Everyone works hard, but, usually on the wrong tasks and goals. Employees take baby steps toward accomplishing key action items and nothing important is finished (Husain, 2011). Team work is the ability to work together towards a common vision. Teamwork is a fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results. Collective action is widely recognized as a positive force for teamwork in any organization or institution to succeed. Teams enable individuals to empower themselves and to increase benefits from cooperative work engaged on as a group. Getting together with others also can allow individuals to better understand the importance of teamwork and how the organization operate as well as promote the culture of teamwork success Without teamwork houses take long to build, government collapse and companies are outshined by their competitors in the market and lastly without teamwork people 3 lose their inspiration (Husain, 2011). According to Wageman (1997) “company’s teamwork is the only way anything gets accomplished with quality and efficiency and a major reason why economic growth is under control and company’s success is scrutinized by top management to achieve the desired goals”. McShone (1998) said that teams are replacing individuals as the basic building blocks of organization – French language television programs has shifted to team-based projects and giving more recognition to teams than to individuals. Companies are not just looking for technical ability but looking for people who can work on teams and solve problems.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
“Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their hard work. For if one of them should fall, the other one can raise his partner up. But how will it be with just the one who falls when there is not another to raise him up?” (Ecclesiastes 4:9-10, KJV). This implies that teamwork can accomplish what the individual cannot do on his or her own. Teamwork is defined as “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they are mutually accountable.” (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993). In today’s society, there have been so much emphasis on pride and personal achievement at work place; where by the concept of teamwork seems to be overlooked by managers and employees, due to this management sees less essence of teamwork as a major tool of performance which has lead them to poor performance and productivity in the health sector.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of team work and organizational performance of university of Port Harcourt teaching hospital; but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;
- To examine the impact of team work on organizational performance of university of port Harcourt teaching hospital
- To examine the relationship between team work and employee productivity
- To examine the effect of team work on quality service delivery in Nigeria health sector
- To examine the role of team work in attaining corporate objective of the organization
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
- Does team work have any impact on organizational performance of university of Port Harcourt teaching hospital?
- Is there any significant relationship between team work and employee productivity?
- Is there any effect of team work on quality service delivery in Nigeria health sector?
- Does team work play any role in attaining corporate objective of the organization
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
H0: Team work does not have any impact on organizational performance of university of Port Harcourt teaching hospital
H1: Team work does have an impact on organizational performance of university of Port Harcourt teaching hospital
H0: There is no significant relationship between team work and employee productivity
H2: There is a significant relationship between team work and employee productivity
- SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
A lot of research work has been carried out on the concept of teamwork by many researchers. This research work is not out a rightly deviation from all other works that have been carried out on the concept. In this study, the research tries to ascertain how teamwork affects organizational performance. At the end of this research, it will subsequently help managers of organizations especially university of port Harcourt teaching Hospital and Government Hospital to decide whether to encourage team working more than that of individually or the other wise, to employees, it will also help them to know if it’s good to work as a team or individually, and last of all this research paper will also serve as starting point for other researchers who want to conduct their research on this same concept.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers team work and organizational performance of university of port Harcourt teaching hospital; but in the cause of the study, there are some factors that limit the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
- b) TIME:
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) FINANCE:
The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
- OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
A team is a group of individuals (usually four or more people) working together to achieve a goal. A group does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximize their strengths and minimize their weaknesses.
Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a team to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way. This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team, which is a group of interdependent individuals who work together towards a common goal.
A teaching hospital is a hospital or medical center that provides medical education and training to future and current health professionals. Teaching hospitals are often affiliated with medical schools and work closely with medical students throughout their period of matriculation, and especially during their clerkship (internship) years.
Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs (or goals and objectives).
Port Harcourt is the capital and largest city of Rivers State, Nigeria. It lies along the Bonny River and is located in the Niger Delta
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.