Background of the Study
Discourse usually means actual instances of communicative action in the medium of language. Discourses are ideas as well as ways of talking that influence and are influenced by ideas. Discourse is both shaped by and helps to shape human life world or the world as we experience it. In other words, discourse both reflects and creates human beings’ worldviews. People bring worlds into being by talking, writing and signing. DA therefore studies the ways in which language is used in text and context observing everything from audio to written composition. Discourse analysis is a qualitative method of analysis which explores the meanings produced by language use and communication, the contexts and practices caused by these meanings.
Discourse analysis reveals the hidden motivations behind a text or behind the choice of a particular method of research to interpret that text. Every text is conditioned and inscribes itself within a given discourse. Discourse analysis will, thus, not provide absolute answers to a specific problem, but will enable us to understand the conditions behind that problem and make us realize that the essence of that problem and its resolution lies in its assumptions that enable the existence of that problem. By enabling us to make these assumptions explicit, discourse analysis aims at following us to view the problem from a higher stance and to gain comprehensive view of the problem and ourselves in relation to that problem.
Critical discourse analysis “is the uncovering of implicit ideologies in texts. It unveils the underlying ideological prejudices and therefore the exercise of power in texts” (Widdoson, 2000). Critical discourse analysis refers to the use of an ensemble of techniques for the study of textual practice and language use as social and cultural practices (Fairclough, 1992).Fairclough and Wodak (1997: 271-280) summarize the main aim of critical discourse analysis as follows; critical discourse analysis addresses social problems, power relations are discursive, discourse constitutes society and culture, discourse does ideological works, discourse is historical, the link between text and society is mediated, discourse analysis is interpretative and explanatory and discourse is a form of social action.
In the opinion of Van Leewen (1993:193), “critical discourse analysis should be concerned with discourse as the instrument of power and control, as well as with discourse as the instrument of the social construction of reality”. Given the power of the written and spoken word, critical discourse is necessary for describing, interpreting, analysing and critiquing social life reflected in text (Luke, 1997). It tries to illuminate ways in which dominant forces in the society construct versions of reality that favours their interests. By unmasking such practices, critical discourse analysis scholars aim to support the victims of such oppression and encourage them to resist and transform their lives (Foucault, 2000). In all of these, language is integral. Language is a system of conventional spoken, manual, or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of social group and participants in its culture express themselves. It also implies the channel through which a person or group of people express thoughts, ideas, emotions and feelings.
Disruption in academic programme becomes a natural consequence of each industrial action or strike. Hence, normal teaching and learning are stalled and therefore, most students are prone to diverse activities such as sexual immorality, cyber scan, pool betting, watching of movies, and engaging in unnecessary gossip etc, rather than reading their books and soon, they forget about academic and lose interest and focus of educational demands which in long run affects their learning capability. Learning as adduced by Wikipedia (2015) is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviour, skills, values, or preference and may involve synthesizing, different types of information and according to Tanner (1980) it is done under the auspices of the school.
Odubela (2012) concludes that effective learning or an enhanced performance is achieved by successful coverage of the course outline timely and before the examination. This is rarely achieved when there is strike action. Based on this, the researchers are of the opinion that disruption in academic program as caused by strike action exposes students to depression, frustration and emotional and psychological trauma, lack of preparedness on the side of the learner or student and lost of motivation which leads to societal vices and unproductiveness and non conducive learning environment in the tertiary institution in Country.
Statement of Problem
All over the world, the tertiary institution both Universities, Colleges of Education and Polytechnics also known as the Ivory towers is regarded as the bedrock of knowledge and intellectualism, and most appropriate ground for incubation of future leaders.
However, over the last thirty years in Nigeria, the University system has witnessed an unprecedented industrial unrest and so many official assaults than other social institution. Statistics from the National University Commission (2002) revealed that since 1992 the union (ASUU) has embarked on strike over 23 times to press home its demands. Just as in all Industrial Conflicts, strike have significant wider, social consequence. Many have argued that those in authority see the tertiary institutions as burden and as an institution to be exploited and left desolate. To change the impression, the union has embarked on several strike actions with the recent one that involved the Colleges of education and lasted for eight months and now more than one year after there have been economic waste, delayed graduation, unbalanced academic calendar and non-challant attitude among staff and students which in essence has resulted in poor academic input and output and lack of productivity in the society and Country at large.
This study therefore, aims at examining Twitter Use By Student During Strike By The Nigerian University Teachers A Discourse Analysis Of Post
The main objective of this study is to examine Twitter Use By Student During Strike By The Nigerian University Teachers A Discourse Analysis Of Post.
The study have the following specific objectives;
- To describe the structure and organization of the twitter content Student During Strike By The Nigerian University Teachers
- To critically examine how students depicted the Strike by Nigerian University Teachers on twitter
- To identify the discursive features of students on twitter during the Strike by Nigerian University Teachers and relate same to the academic context of its discourse.
- What are the structure and organization of the twitter content Student During Strike By The Nigerian University Teachers?
- To what extend do students depict the Strike by Nigerian University Teachers on twitter?
- What are the discursive features of students on twitter during the Strike by Nigerian University Teachers and relate same to the academic context of its discourse?
Significance of the Study
Language use, especially the spoken language, has been studied, in many domains including sociolinguistics, anthropology and text interpretation. These studies have been motivated by the need to investigate the characteristics and interpretation of discourse texts. This study contributed to the understanding of discourse strategies and the semantics of strike by way of linguistic analysis and interpretation.
It is hopeful that this study contributes to and expand the knowledge of discourse; and also as a proof that discourse analysis is an empirical tool for the analysis of the twitter discourse
Scope of the Study
The discourse approach adopted in this research focused on such parameters like linguistic forms occurring as functional entities in Twitter posts of Student During Strike By The Nigerian University, the input of contextual cues and paralinguistic features in meaning analysis and interpretation,.
Definition of Terms
Discourse: This is used to refer to the spoken/sung and written material (Faighclour, 1989).
Discourse Text: ‘Discourse’ in this sense is used adjectivally to modify ‘text’in order to realize the meaning: the text in the discourse. In this sense, the text is the visual representation of the song.
Discourse Mode:A passage of text with certain analysable discourse features such as Narrative, Description, and Argumentation.
Modal verb: is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality – that is: likelihood, ability, permission, request, capacity, suggestions, order, obligation, or advice.
Modality ;is an aspect of the interpersonal meaning. It is “the area of meaning that lies between yes and no—the intermediate ground between positive and negative polarity.
Transitivity; is the realization of the experiential component. It refers to the way meanings are encoded in the clause and to the way different types of process are represented in language (